Global Hazard Trends

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  • Created by: em42
  • Created on: 25-04-15 16:51
1. Are more hazard events occuring?
There may be, however, hazard is sometimes interchanged with disaster so there may not be more hazards occuring but a higher percentage are becoming disasters beacuse an increasing number of vulnerable people are affected & they are more reported.
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2. Since when has the number of reported natural disasters risen sharply?
The 1960s.
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3. Which type of disaster is responsible for driving the overall trend?
Hydro-meteorological disasters are responsible due ot the increase in floods, storms & more recently, droughts. Together, floods and storms accounted for 70% of all disasters globally in the last 40 years.
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4. Why has the number of geophysical disasters increased slightly since the 1970s?
It could be the result of more reporting of disasters & also the rising number of vulnerable populations living in hazard-prone areas. But, in general, the trend fluctuates. Indonesia is a hotspot of tectonic activity & has experienced 5 major
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4. Why has the number of geophysical disasters increased slightly since the 1970s? [continued]
earthquakes & several tsunamis since 2005. These events result from a highly mobile destructive plate boundary where the Indian plate is being subducted under the Burma.
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5. Why are bio-hazards showing an upward trend, often exceeding geophysical hazards numerically?
The increase may link to global warming which leads to more pests and diseases.
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6. What are the physical factors which contribute to the rising trend in hydro-meteorological disasters?
A more extreme climate will increase the risk from certain hazards. In some cases, this may lead to more severe events & in others, the events may occur more often. Equal importance is given to oscillations e.g. the El Niño/La Niña cycle.
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7. What are some of the human factors which contribute to the rising trend in hydro-meteorological disasters?
Population growth & change - more people means more vulnerable people & also increasing pressure at coasts. Economic growth - icreasing value of property & infrastructure increases economic impacts. Poverty - many LEDCs can't afford disaster
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7. What are some of the human factors which contribute to the rising trend in hydro-meteorological disasters? [continued]
management & support for vulnerable people. Technological innovation - controls hazards but does not protect against major disasters; it can also encourage people to build in danger zones.
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8. What has been the recent trend in the number of people reported killed by natural disasters?
Deaths dropped dramatically before the 1970s but have levelled off in recent years to a fluctuating trend with rises due to mega events. 'Deaths are falling, yet the number of people affected by disasters is rising & economic losses are escalating.'
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9. Describe how better disaster management before a disaster has led to a lower number of deaths.
There is better mitigation (use of hazard-/climate-proof structures) & improved disaster preparedness using education, community training & high-technology warning systems.
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10. Describe how better disaster management during the disaster has led to a lower number of deaths.
In many cases emergency responses have improved, with local participation in effective disaster relief programmes.
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11. Describe how better disaster management after a disaster has led to a lower number of deaths.
Recovery programmes are better coordinated, often using GIS to pinpoint problems. There are still many problems e.g. with the boxing day tsunami, but, especially in developed areas, deaths are minimised by an effective disaster response.
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12. What is the definition of 'being affected' by a disaster?
It includes loss of home, crops, animals, livelihood & often a decline in health/quality of life for a designated period (usually 3 months).
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13. What is responsible for the rising number of peole affected by disasters?
Increased vulnerability due to a less favourable risk equation, as 80% of the millions affected are concentrated in areas of low-medium human development. Countries with the greatest numbers of people affected are almost exclusively LEDCs & RICs.
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14. Why is the value of the economic losses from a disaster escalating compared with the insured risks?
Hazard-prone areas generally have high insurance premiums, and some businesses & many poor people (who are forced to live in these areas) can't afford/access insurance. Rising numbers are occurring in LEDCs where insurance is rarely an option.
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15. Why is there a tendency to over-emphasise the economic damage & losses experienced in MEDCs?
Due to the value of posessions, the sophistication of instillations & infrastructure & the scale of domestic insurance claims, the amounts involved in MEDCs are large. But, relatively, economic damage from natural disasters tends > higher in LEDCs.
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16. Why, relatively, does the economic damage from natural disasters tend to be higher in LEDCs?
They are highly dependant on 1/2 economic sectors e.g. tourism/cash cropping of bananas. The damage forms a very high % of their very low annual GDP e.g.in 1998, hurricane Mitch caused a 50% loss in GDP for Nicaragua.
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17. Why are countries like China another reason why the rate of economic losses is increasing faster?
The growing economies of RICs such as India & China as well as the 'Tiger' economies of Korea, Taiwan, Singapore & Malaysia.
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Card 2

Front

2. Since when has the number of reported natural disasters risen sharply?

Back

The 1960s.

Card 3

Front

3. Which type of disaster is responsible for driving the overall trend?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

4. Why has the number of geophysical disasters increased slightly since the 1970s?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

4. Why has the number of geophysical disasters increased slightly since the 1970s? [continued]

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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