Global Governance

  • Created by: Becca96
  • Created on: 03-06-15 14:26
What is global governance?
The process of decision making at the global level, involving formal and informal mechanisms as well as governmental and non-governmental bodies.
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What are the two forms of global governance?
Intergovernmentalism and supranationalism.
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Give three examples of non-governmental groups that may be involved in global governance.
Bankers, activists and scientists.
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What is world government?
The centralisation of sovereignty within a single common political authority possessing legislative and executive power.
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How would world government operate under a unitary model?
A supranational authority would enjoy a monopoly of legitimate power and establish a global hierarchy.
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How would world government operate under a federal model?
A supranational body would have central yet autonomous power; state governments would still have control over domestic issues.
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What is supranationalism?
The presence of an authority that is higher than that of the nation-state and is capable of imposing its will on it. Sovereignty is transferred from constituent states to an international or regional organisation.
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How do liberals see supranationalism?
A key part of the general trend of political globalisation; desirable to contain and control states' selfish behaviour.
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How do realists see supranationalism?
It presents a threat to sovereignty, democracy and national identity, perhaps containing the seeds of world government.
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What is intergovernmentalism and what are its most common forms?
Interaction between states on the basis of sovereign independence. Most commonly operates through treaties, alliances and intergovernmental organisations.
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How does intergovernmentalism affect state sovereignty?
Sovereignty is retained; states often have veto powers over issues of national importance.
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Give two ways in which national sovereignty limits the effectiveness of global governance.
Given that states retain ultimate power, there are minimal consequences for governments that choose to disobey rules. E.g. USA refusing participation in Kyoto, ICC. Also, states can simply withdraw from institutions. E.g. Euroscepticism in UK
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What do liberals think about sacrificing sovereignty to global governance institutions?
It is an acceptable price to pay for the harmonious existence of states. Furthermore, increasing interdependence and strength of globalising forces calls for collective action to alleviate global problems e.g. terrorism, climate change.
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What do realists think about sacrificing sovereignty to global governance institutions?
It is important to retain sovereignty so that states can defend themselves in the competitive environment of the global system. States cannot be trusted to cooperate.
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What are the five key aims of the United Nations?
To maintain peace and security. To promote sustainable development. To protect human rights. To uphold international law. To deliver humanitarian aid.
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How does the UN maintain peace and security?
Through the Security Council's ability to issue binding resolutions and implement sanctions, as well as the more recent function of R2P.
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Give two examples of UN programmes that facilitate sustainable development.
The United Nations Development Programme and the Millennium Development Goals.
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What key piece of UN legislation protects human rights?
The 1948 Universal Declaration on Human Rights
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How does the UN uphold international law?
Through courts such as the International Court of Justice, tribunals and treaties as well as peacekeeping operations and the use of force.
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Give three UN organisations/groups that help deliver humanitarian aid.
Peacekeepers, the World Food Programme and the Office for the Co-ordination of Humanitarian Affairs
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What is collective security?
Where states pledge to defend one another in order to deter aggression.
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How do liberals view collective security?
As an alternative to the insecurity and uncertainty of power politics.
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What are the four key components of the UN?
The Security Council, the General Assembly, the Secretariat and the Economic and Social Council.
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What are the four main powers of the Security Council?
To pass legally binding resolutions, suspend/expel members, impose sanctions and mobilise military forces to maintain peace and security.
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Who are the P-5? How many other members are there in the Security Council and how often are they elected?
UK, USA, Russia, China and France. There are 15 other members who are elected every two years (in line with a regional balance).
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What power do members of the P-5 possess?
Veto power.
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What is the General Assembly's function and what is it nicknamed?
It is the deliberative organ of the UN - nicknamed the 'parliament of nations'.
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What are the four main roles of the General Assembly?
To debate and pass resolutions, approve the UN budget, determine member states' monetary contributions and elect the Secretary-General/ICJ judges.
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How large a majority is required for the General Assembly to pass resolutions on important decisions?
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Are the General Assembly's resolutions legally binding?
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What is the Secretariat's role?
It plays an administrative role, managing the other principal organs of the UN. It sets the agenda for deliberation and decision making, and implements decisions made.
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Who is the current Secretary-General and how often are they elected?
Ban Ki-moon. Elected every five years by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the UNSC.
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How many members are there in the Economic and Social Council?
54 members.
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Give five examples of economic and social organisations overseen by the Economic and Social Council.
The World Bank, the IMF, the WTO, the WHO, UNESCO and UNICEF.
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What was the state of the UN during the Cold War?
Characterised by paralysis and deadlock due to the membership of conflicting powers - Russia and USA - in the Security Council.
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What was the only occasion on which the UNSC agreed to mobilise military forces during the Cold War?
Korean War in 1950 - this was because Russia had temporarily withdrawn in protest at the exclusion of 'Red China'.
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Which function did the UN reclaim after the Cold War ended?
Collective security.
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How many times did the P-5 use their veto powers between 1996 and 2006?
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What did the UN become more active in after the Cold War?
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What two problems has the UN faced since the end of the Cold War?
Failed peacekeeping operations such as Rwanda. Emergence of unipolarity - USA effectively a 'P-1'.
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How many UN member states were there in 1945 and how many are there now?
51 in 1945; 193 now.
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How have Southern nations managed to get their issues onto the UN agenda?
By grouping together as the G77.
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How does the UN define peacekeeping?
A way to help countries torn by conflict to create conditions for sustainable peace.
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What was the role of troops involved in 'first generation' peacekeeping? Give an example of this.
UN forces placed between warring parties after a ceasefire has been achieved, to act as a shield against further conflict. E.g. Arab-Israeli conflict in 1948.
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What was the main limitation of 'first generation' peacekeeping?
Troops did not attempt to resolve the deeper sources of the conflict, or establish a permanent settlement.
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Why was 'first generation' peacekeeping limited during the Cold War?
The UN needed to remain neutral and so could only monitor post-conflict situations as opposed to influencing a further outcome.
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Why was there a greater need for peacekeeping after the Cold War?
The collapse of the USSR allowed ethnic and other divisions to surface, creating a number of 'new' civil wars.
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Why was traditional peacekeeping less practical after the Cold War?
Ongoing threat of violence meant further action was required.
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What does 'peace enforcement' involve?
Coercive measures including the use of military force.
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What reform facilitates peace enforcement and when was it introduced?
R2P - Responsibility to Protect. Introduced in 2005.
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What does 'multi-dimensional peacekeeping' involve? Give four features.
The implementation of a peace agreement, the use of force to achieve humanitarian ends, the provision of emergency relief and steps towards political construction.
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Give an example of where and when a peacekeeping failure took place.
Rwanda, 1994.
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What was the reason for peacekeepers to enter Rwanda?
The Hutu tribe began killing members of the Tutsi tribe.
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What was the name of the UN task force that entered Rwanda and when was it established?
UNAMIR - United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda, established in 1993 (before genocide began).
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Who was amongst the first targets of the killings in Rwanda? (from UN force)
10 Belgian soldiers.
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What happened in May 1994 in relation to Rwanda?
UNSC passed a resolution to place 5,500 more troops in Rwanda.
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Why was the implementation of the resolution delayed?
Member states were slow to commit troops after a failure in Somalia the previous year.
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How many were killed in the 100 days the genocide was allowed to continue for?
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Give an example of when and where a peacekeeping operation was successful.
Cambodia, 1992.
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Why were UN troops deployed in Cambodia?
To enforce the 1991 Peace Accords which marked the end of the Cambodia-Vietnam war.
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What were the four key aims of the UN task force in Cambodia?
To restore peace and civil government, to hold free and fair elections, to establish a constitution and to 'kick start' the rehabilitation of the country.
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Give four actions carried out by the UN peacekeepers in Cambodia?
Supervision of government, confiscation of weapons, repatriation of refugees and assistance in economic reconstruction and development.
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What was established in Cambodia?
A liberal democracy.
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Why is the membership of the P-5 outdated?
Resembles the great powers of the immediate post-1945 period. Irrelevant to the Cold War distribution of power, let alone the present day.
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Why is the membership of the P-5 imbalanced?
No permanent representation of the South American or African regions.
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Why would a more representative P-5 be beneficial?
It would enjoy wider support and influence, making it more effective.
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Give three obstacles to UN reform.
Veto status difficult to remove; more vulnerable powers effectively vote themselves out. Significant opposition outside P-5; S Africa+Nigeria and Brazil+Argentina oppose each other. Global power changing; 'permanent' membership inappropriate.
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Give three solutions/approaches to UN reform.
Whilst the USA, China and Russia deserve to remain, the UK and France are no longer on same level. Cases have been made for inclusion of Japan, Germany and NICs such as Brazil, India and S Africa. Possibility of regular revision of veto status.
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Give four arguments that the UN is successful and effective.
World a safer place as it promotes cooperation and peacekeeping. Modernisation of peacekeeping; success in Cambodia. New agendas and new thinking; adapts to global challenges such as social/econ development. Can be reformed; e.g. R2P, may see UNSC
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Give four arguments that the UN is unsuccessful and ineffective.
Proto-world government; designed to play role of supranational body, therefore unaccountable, undemocratic, illegitimate. Ineffective in the light of US hegemony (Iraq, ICC etc.) Lack of moral compass; Rwandan failure. Outdated and unreformable.
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When was NATO formed?
1948 (following signing of Brussels Treaty).
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How many members did NATO have in 1948 compared to now?
Had 5 members originally; now has 28.
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What is the main purpose of NATO?
To safeguard the freedom and security of members by considering an attack on one member an attack on all members; collective security.
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Why did member states continue to value NATO after the collapse of the USSR (the alliance's primary threat)?
Linked the US and Europe on the basis of collective security which was still as important in the less stable world following USSR collapse.
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What was the name of the NATO force established to play a role in peacekeeping/peace enforcement?
The Headquarters Allied Rapid Reaction Corps.
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What happened in 1995 in Yugoslavia, and what was the result of this?
NATO were given permission to perform air strikes on the Serbs, which ended the conflict and resulted in the placement of 60,000 NATO troops to restore order and enforce peace.
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How did NATO serve the purpose of stabilising Eastern Europe?
Cooperation with former Soviet bloc; many Eastern European countries joined NATO as a symbol of new orientation to the West and desire to join European institutions.
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What additional role did NATO adopt after 9/11 - give an example of it performing this role.
Dealing with terrorist threats out of the Euro-Atlantic area; for example, intervened in Afghanistan.
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Give three challenges facing NATO.
Tensions and conflicts of interest between European states, who are cutting their defence budgets, and the USA, who is turning its attention toward emerging Asia. Expansion of NATO to include members with limited military capacity. Russian hostility.
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Why does NATO face a dilemma over the membership of Ukraine and Georgia?
They are weak militarily and add little to the alliance, but leaving them out will allow Russia to carve out a sphere of influence.
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How do realists view global economic governance?
World economy is a competitive arena in which states seek to maximise wealth and power; capacity for cooperation is limited. However, in the presence of a hegemon, some cooperation with its ground rules is required. E.g. Bretton Woods part of US heg.
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How do liberals view global economic governance?
Have faith in the free market and the competition it generates; obstacles to market freedom should be minimal. However, liberals accept need for some governance - with purpose of promoting openness and freedom.
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What two events in the 1970s and 1980s marked the triumph of economic liberalism over quasi-mercantilism?
The collapse of the Bretton Woods system and the emergence of the Washington consensus.
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How do neo-Marxists view global economic governance?
Question the liberal view that these institutions can reflect the view of all groups. Instead, they are contributed to benefit those who dominate the global capitalist system and exploit weaker states. Core-periphery.
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When was the Bretton Woods system formed?
August 1944.
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Which three bodies/agreements were created to form the Bretton Woods system?
The World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT - later to become the World Trade Organisation)
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How was the creation of the Bretton Woods system an indicator of US hegemony? Give 3 ways.
The conference was initiated by the USA, took place in the USA and the USA was leading force in decision making.
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What was the initial role of the IMF?
To ensure exchange rate stability and encourage members to eliminate barriers to trade.
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What did the IMF focus on in the late 1970s?
Helping countries deal with consequences of the oil crisis.
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What did the IMF focus on from the 1980s onwards?
Helping HIPCs by offering loans and implementing Structural Adjustment Programmes.
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What was the initial purpose of the World Bank?
To redistribute wealth by providing soft loans to developing countries.
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Who was appointed as president of the World Bank in 1968 and what did he seek to focus its efforts on?
Robert McNamara. Focused on healthcare, education and population control.
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Who replaced McNamara in 1980 and what did he shift World Bank thinking towards?
A. W. Clausen - shift towards market-orientated thinking and joined the IMF in implementing Structural Adjustment Programmes.
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How has the World Bank responded to criticism? Give three ways.
Increasing environmental awareness. Focusing on good governance and anti-corruption. Has focused on poverty reduction by discussing local needs with recipient states.
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What was the role of GATT?
To police international trade.
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Give two limitations of GATT.
Focus was restricted to reduction of trade barriers against manufactured goods; ineffective in relation to agriculture and services. Also had limited capacity to check 'non-tariff barriers'.
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Give evidence that GATT was successful within these parameters.
Average tariff in 1947 was 40%, whereas by 2000 this had been reduced to 3%.
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When did GATT become the WTO?
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Why is the WTO considered to be democratic?
Each member state has a single vote and decisions require a simple majority. Gives a lots of weight to developing countries which make up 2/3 of membership.
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Give two criticisms of the WTO.
Many negotiations made in secretive 'club-like' meetings from which developing nations are excluded from. The bulk of allegations made of unfair trading are made against developing countries.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What are the two forms of global governance?


Intergovernmentalism and supranationalism.

Card 3


Give three examples of non-governmental groups that may be involved in global governance.


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is world government?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


How would world government operate under a unitary model?


Preview of the front of card 5
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