Global challenges for the future

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  • Created by: em42
  • Created on: 07-05-15 16:34
1. What, increasingly, is the globalised world?
Urban, on the move, connected.
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2. What has globalisation created?
More choice but also more homogeneity e.g. a McDonald's in every city.
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3. What has demographic globalisation created?
It has created mixing & deviersity but with this comes the social & cultural tensions associated with rising migration.
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4. Despite the gains from globalistion in countries such as China and India, why does the world continue to be widely unequal?
In 1960, the ratio of income of the poorest 200% of the world's population to the world's richesr was 1:30. By 2000, it was 1:70. In many parts of the developing world, the poor have been getting wealthier, yet developed countries have been getting
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4. Despite the gains from globalistion in countries such as China and Indai, why does the world continue to be widely unequal? [continued]
wealthier faster, thereby widening the gap. In many African countries, income levels have fallen since 1980.
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5. How are dramatic rises in consumption of resources explained by global population growth?
The global population has grown from 3.7 bn in 1970 to 6.4 bn in 2005. Also, there is higher consumption per person; Chinese consumption has risen dramatically & by 2031, may reach levels similar to those of the USA in 2005.
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6. What were the USA's consumption levels like in 2005?
1 350 mn tonnes of grain per year (66% of world production 2005). 180 mn tonnes of meat per year (80% of world production 2005). 2.8 bn tonnes of coal/yr (global production 2.6 2005). 1.1 bn cars (800 mn globally 2005).
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7. What is the main concern with 'food miles'?
'Food miles' are the distance which produce travels from food to customer. The longer the distance, the bigger the need for refrigeration & extra packaging & the high the carbon footprint of that particular food.
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8. What are some examples in the UK of 'food miles'?
Grapes from Chile - +12 000 km, heavily packaged to avoid damage. Strawberries from Spain - ~16 000 km. Prawns from Indonesia - almost 12 000 km. Sending coffee produced in Africa to India for roasting & then to UK for sale.
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9. Who are expected to be the 'winners' from globalisation?
Those that have gained jobs as TNCs have shifted production to low-cost locations.
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10. What are the typical working conditions for a factory worker in China's Pearl River Delta?
Pay is $50-$150 per month. Unions are banned. Overtime, a requirement to keep the job, is around 30 hours per week. Many migrant workers live in factory-owned dormitories, 16 people per room. Labour & health & safety laws are rarely enforced.
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11. What would be the alternative work in China?
It would be farming, which has an annual income of $300-$400 compared with $1 000+ for a factory worker.
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12. Who are the majority of factory workers?
Rural-urban migrants who consider their lives improved compared with those of their parents.
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13. What moves are being made in China and India to help factory workers?
There are moves to increase worker rights & ban child labour. For governments, there is a difficult balancing act as attempts to improve workers' conditions could simply mean TNCs shifting again, to the next low-cost location.
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14. What are the different actions needed at a range of scales to achieve sustainability in a globalised world?
Individual actions - changing behaviour. Local actions - usually by local councils. National - government policies. Global - agreements & targets.
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15. What has moved up the radar of many consumers and the political agenda?
Concern over rising carbon emissions. There are a range of options for those seeking to reduce their carbon footprint.
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16. Respect is one of the 5R's, what does it involve?
The overall aim: to respect the environment & minimise ecological & carbon footprints.
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17. Reduce is one of the 5R's, what does it involve?
Using less: using the bus/walking instead of driving, using energy-efficient lightbulbs.
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18. Reuse is one of the 5R's, what does it involve?
Using things twice, e.g. re-using envelopes/scrap paper. Charity shops are a way of using second-hand goods.
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19. Recycle is one of the 5R's, what does it involve?
Sorting & sending waste to be recycled or composted.
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20. Renew is one of the 5R's, what does it involve?
Switching to renewable energy and/or sourcing products made using renewable energy & resources.
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21. How can individuals 'offset' their emissions?
By paying for new tree planting to sequester their pollution. Many airlines offer this service on their websites.
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22. How can governments change consumer behaviour?
Car tax (VED) is one of the government's ways of applying a 'green tax'. It aims to use the tax system to change car-buying behaviour by linking VED to CO2 emissions per kilometre. Introduced in 1998, it seems to have affected our buying behaviour.
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23. Many businesses, including some TNCs, have jumped on the 'green' bandwagon as public concern has grown. How has BP?
In 2002, they changed the company logo from a shield to a flower & the company has diversified into solar power & retailing.
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24. Although many people are cynical about the motives for businesses 'going green', what are some reasons to suggest they are serious?
Money can be saved by reducing energy use (and therefore pollution). Company assets are vulnerable to sea-level rise & flooding linked to climate change. Oil & gas will run out; renewable energy provides an alternative business model. Consumers are
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24. Although many people are cynical about the motives for businesses 'going green', what are some reasons to suggest they are serious? [continued]
increasingly 'switched off' by companies with a poor environmental record. Also, if companies can see long-term benefits to shareholders 'going green', they are likely to move in this direction.
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25. What have ethichal concerns over globalisation led some consumers to do?
Change their behaviour in the hope of reducing the negative social consequences of consumption.
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26. Fair trade is a strategy to create a more equitable world. What is/are the benefit, examples & issues with this strategy?
Benefit - Developing world farmers get a higher price for their products. Example - Coffee, chocolate, bananas & some clothing. In 2010, the total value of UK fair trade sales was £1.1 bn & it is growing at 40% per year. Issues - Hard to monitor the
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26. Fair trade is a strategy to create a more equitable world. What is/are the benefit, examples & issues with this strategy? [continued]
growing number of schemes. The fair trade price premium is small.
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27. Ethically sourced goods are a strategy to create a more equitable world. What is/are the benefit, examples & issues with this strategy?
Benefits - Guaranteed free of child/'sweatshop' labour. Example - Many shops & supermarkets have ethical clothing ranges. Issues - Currently only a small % of all goods sold.
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28. Buying locally is a strategy to create a more equitable world. What is/are the benefit, examples & issues with this strategy?
Benfits - Reduces food miles & supports local producers. Example - Seasonal 'veggie boxes' are delivered by farms to many households in the UK. Issues - More expensive than using supermarkets; reduced choice.
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29. Organic food is a strategy to create a more equitable world. What is/are the benefit, examples & issues with this strategy?
Benefits - Reduces the carbon footprint of food & pollution from farm chemicals. Example - Many supermarkets now sell organic milk, cheese, fruit, veg & cereals. Issues - Often more expensive than non-organic food, with less choice.
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30. FSC certified is a strategy to create a more equitable world. What is/are the benefit, examples & issues with this strategy?
Benefits - Ensures that wood products have been produced from sustainable forests. Example - Hardwood garden furniture often has an FSC mark. Issues - Difficult to monitor especially from distant sources in the developing world.
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Card 2

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2. What has globalisation created?

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More choice but also more homogeneity e.g. a McDonald's in every city.

Card 3

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3. What has demographic globalisation created?

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Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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4. Despite the gains from globalistion in countries such as China and India, why does the world continue to be widely unequal?

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Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

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4. Despite the gains from globalistion in countries such as China and Indai, why does the world continue to be widely unequal? [continued]

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