Global Systems AQA Geography Flashcards

  • Created by: 13boneo
  • Created on: 18-10-18 09:42
Give the definition of global interdependence.
Mutual dependence at a global level, meaning the actions of one country have impacts on another country.
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Give an example of economic interdependence.
TNCs from HICs rely on LICs for low labour costs and LICs rely on HICs for investment.
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Give an example of social interdependence.
There is a reliance on migration from LICs to HICs and an expectation of HICs to take migrants.
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Give an example of political interdependence.
Countries and counties are dependent on superpowers e.g. USA & EU, which can be countries or regions, b/c they exert influence over LICs.
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Give an example of environmental interdependence.
Acid rain produced elsewhere in the EU fell onto Finland and many Finnish fish populations were affected.
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Why is migration good for HICs?
Immigrants are typically young, productive and have a minimal effect on wages for existing residents. Most HICs have an ageing population b/c they have fewer children in comparison to LICs and so health care is in high demand and staffed by migrants.
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Why are some EU members so dependent on Russian gas?
They are not protected from the possibility of a disruption to the large amount of Russian gas they import. They cannot support their energy mix using resources from their own country or rely on Russia for a high % of it.
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What is the Kafala System and what are the issues surrounding it?
A system in the UAE which allows people to hire migrant workers. It has been criticised for absuing human rights b/c migrants have their passports taken away and cannot leave until their employer decides. Migrants live in poor conditions.
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Outline what is meant by core and periphery (can work at an international or regional level).
Core areas are richer w/ more economic power and political influence. Peripheral areas have less economic power and are further away form the core.
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Discuss the flows linked to core/periphery.
FDI flows from core -> periphery regions, where TNCs build factories and create jobs for local people. The flow of profits goes back to the HIC where the shareholders of the TNC are based and the largest markets are found.
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How is South Korea an example of how unequal flows have led to growth and stability?
SK has larger exports than imports. Exports as a % of GDP increased from 25.9% in 1995 to 56.3% in 2012. It gets a lot of FDI from USA & Japan. SK spends the largest share of its GDP on research & development.
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Who was the World Systems Theory created by? What does it suggest?
Developed by sociologist Immanuel Wallerstein, the World Systems Theory suggests there is a world economic system in which some countries benefit while others are exploited.
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Who was the Dependency Theory created by? What does it suggest?
Andre Gunder FrankDependency theory is based on a Marxist view of the world, which sees globalisation in terms of the spread of market capitalism, and the exploitation of cheap labour and resources in return for the obsolete technologies of the West.
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Where is the South China Sea and why is it considered to be important?
It is important as a trade route and also for its resources. Located between the mainland coast of Asia and the island groups of the Phillipines, Borneo and Indonesia.
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What is the contesting over the South China Sea an example of?
Unequal power relations.
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What are the Spratly islands? Which countries have claimed them?
The Spratly Islands consist of over 120 small islands, islets, rocks and reefs in the South China Sea. Claimed by China, Taiwan, the Phillipines, Malaysia, Brunei and Vietnam. All countries except Brunei have built garrisons on islands.
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What has China done in the South China Sea?
Built artificial islands to claim more of the water and increased millitary presence as an attempt to convey prowess to other countries on the sea.
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What is the situation between the Nenets and Gazprom an example of?
Unequal power within a country.
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What is threatening the Nenets' way of life? Why?
Climate change and oil/gas exploration. Rising temps melt the permafrost -> Nenets forced to change traditional migration routes. Gazprom building roads -> interrupt reindeer migration. Permafrost melt causing lakes to drain away -> fish supply falls
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What have been the impacts of Gazprom's developments, including a 570km railway line?
Oil and gas operations in the Yamal Peninsula destroyed over 64000km2 of tundra in just 10 years. Fish spawning grounds have been polluted, decreasing fish yields on the River Ob. Nearly 30 fisheries on the Ob have been destroyed.
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Explain how the conflict on the Yamal Peninsula shows unequal power relations.
The gas and oil reserves are being exploited at the expense of the Nenets' ancestral homeland. The Nenets had been living sustainably with the fragile tundra ecosystem and did not get to consesnt to the developments by Gazprom, a state-owned company.
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What is the Lorenz Curve? What is the Gini Coefficient?
A measure of the distribution of wealth in a society where % of income is plotted against % of population. The Gini Coefficient is the area between the Lorenz Curve and the diagonal line. In a perfect society, it would be 0.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Give an example of economic interdependence.

Back

TNCs from HICs rely on LICs for low labour costs and LICs rely on HICs for investment.

Card 3

Front

Give an example of social interdependence.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Give an example of political interdependence.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Give an example of environmental interdependence.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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