Global systems and Global Governance

  • Created by: Om4r
  • Created on: 31-05-19 19:33
What is a Single Product economy?
A country usually an LIC, that relies on one or a very small number of products usually raw materials for its export earnings
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What are Trading Blocs?
Bringing countries together to trade which support free trade between member countries without incurring tariffs or charges
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What country can be used for Global systems?
Uganda
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Where is Uganda located?
Land locked country in East Africa
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Why shouldn't Uganda be poor?
It's green and fertile and has plenty of resources such as copper and cobalt
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What has limited Uganda's development?
Civil war, corruption HIV/aids
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What is the life expectancy in Uganda?
59 years
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Who took advantage of Uganda? What did they export?
The British Empire, cash crops, coffee , tea and cotton
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What is Uganda's Current most profitable exports?
Fish, which is an unsustainable export and is their traditional food staple
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What aided uganda's development?
The installation of fixed cables and internet
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What model offers people a chance to open up a business?
Village phone model, offering people to start a mobile phone business
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What does the loan allow the purchase of?
A mobile phone, a car battery and a booster antenna
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What major creation influenced Globalisation of trade?
Shipping containers
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When were shipping containers introduced?
1956
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How much did a containers cost to load compared to loose cargo?
$0.16 per tonne compared to $5.83 per tonne for loose cargo
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What % of All good is transported by ocean vessels?
80%
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What 2 methods does China use to control what its citizens see on the web?
The Great fire wall and the Golden shield
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What is the Great Firewall?
System of online censorship
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What is the Golden Shield?
System of Domestic Surveillance
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What Country can be used as an example of negative impacts of single product economies?
Nigeria
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How may barrels of proven oil reserves does Nigeria have?
36 million barrels
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How much Natural gas reserves does Nigeria have?
2800 Billion cubic metres
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How much % does oil and gas account for Nigerias national income?
80%
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Who exploited Nigeria's Natural resources?
The worlds major oil companies
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Why have these global giants been criticised?
No regard to local environment and indigenous people
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What problem did Nigeria's Economy suffer from?
The Dutch Disease
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What is the Dutch Disease?
High income generated from oil resulted in Nigerian currency being overvalued making imported consumer good cheap and domestically manufactured goods being too expensive and unable to be exported
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What are the advantages of International Trade?
Specialisation, Mass production and Increased Employment
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What are the disadvantages of International Trade?
Over-specialisation, De-skilling, Exploitation and labour intensity
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How does International Trade create specialisation?
A country specialises in producing only those goods that can be produced efficiently and at the lowest opportunity cost
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In what way does International trade allow for mass production?
Specialisation means country can produce in higher volumes and at a cheaper cost
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How does International trade increase employment?
Increased production leads to more jobs
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Why may over-specialisation be a disadvantage of International trade?
If demand falls or goods can be produced cheaper elsewhere, production needs to shift to other products. Specialised production centres tend to be less flexible and less able to diversify
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How may international trade lead to a de-skilled workforce?
Traditional skills lost when production technology replaces man power
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How may International Trade lead to Exploitation and labour intensive industries?
Biggest cost for most industries is labour, industries may try to maximise profits by limiting spending on wages and working conditions
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What are the Terms of Trade?
The cost of the goods a country imports compared with the price at which they can sell the goods they export
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Name 4 main trading organisations?
WTO, OPEC, WORLD BANK and IMF
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What does WTO stand for and what is their aim?
World trade organisation ,aims to cut trade barriers (tariffs and quotas) that stop countries trading freely so that goods can flow more easily
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What does OPEC stand for, what is their aim?
Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries, tries to regulate the global oil market to ensure a good fair price
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What does the World Bank do?
Promotes investment globally and provides loans for countries under certain conditions
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What does IMF stand for and what is their aim?
International monetary fund, aims to promote global monetary and exchange stability by monitoring the global economy and encouraging the growth of international trade
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How many EU jobs depend on trade?
30 Million
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Why is trade important?
It's an engine of growth
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What are Social Positives of trading agreements?
Creation of jobs, incentive of trade help to reduce the chances of violent conflict
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What are Social Negatives of trading agreements?
Non member countries of the trade bloc will be frozen out
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What are Economic Positives of Trading agreements?
Trade blocs protect the areas economy from competition and weaker disadvantaged peripheral regions can be supported by the stronger areas
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What are Economic negatives of trading agreements?
Sharing resources may damage economic sectors e.g. UK sharing traditional fishing grounds and fishing quotas
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What are the negative Environmental impacts of trading agreements?
Increased food mileage as the cheapest product within the bloc will be most traded
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What are negative political impacts of trading agreements?
Trade wars, trade blocs argue with one another
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What is an example of Trade wars?
EU Banning USA reared beef raised with hormones and the US responded with $60 million in tarrifs on EU beef
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What is Horizontal Integration?
Involves improving links between different firms in the same stage of production , resulting in a smaller number of firms controlling a given section of the market
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What is Vertical Integration?
An industry where one company either owns or controls multiple stages in the production and distribution chain
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What are some positive impacts of TNCs on Host Countries?
Increased employment and standard of living, improved level of skills and expertise, encourages transfer of technology
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What are some negative impacts of TNCs on Host Countries?
Many jobs are low skilled in LICs, Majority of profits are sent back to home country, Political power of TNCs means they may cut corners in terms of employee rights and health and saftey, aswell as harming the environment
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What are the 6 main reasons for Growth of TNCs?
Cheap labour, Cheap land, Flexible workforce, Globalised Transport network, Technological developments and Fewer Environmental restrictions
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In what way is labour cheap?
Lower wage demands from LICs and also from unemployed in HICs
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In what areas may land be cheap?
In areas suffering from effects of de-industrialisation or changes in land use
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In what way is the workforce flexible?
Willingness to travel to jobs overseas to be retained in situ
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How has the Globalisation of transport networks helped TNCs grow?
E.g. containerisation has created a standard transport product that can be handled anywhere in the world, ships, truck and rail wagons all handle containers of the same size
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How have Technological Developments helped TNCs grow?
Refrigeration of freeze drying allows perishable fruit and Veg from LICs to be transported to markets in HICs
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How may fewer environmental restrictions help the growth of TNCs?
Usually in LICs, this means companies often dump waste and don't invest in waste management properly aswell as having no regard for the environment whilst producing
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What economic impacts has Fairtrade had on The El Guabo Association of small banana producers?
Stabilised incomes and improvement in living standards, long-term supply contract, guaranteed fair wages
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What social impacts has Fairtrade had on The El Guabo Association of Small Banana Producers?
Healthcare benefits e.g. free access to El Guabo clinic, Provision of educational and medicinal supplies, support for poorest groups
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What % of Bakery Items are thrown away?
40%
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How much of salad in bags is thrown away?
Over 2/3rds
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Around how many people in the world are overweight?
1.9 Billion
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Around how many people are undernourished?
800 Million
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What countries are the 2 largest producers of Palm Oil?
Indonesia and Malaysia
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What % of Palm oil production does Indonesia and Malaysia account for?
84%
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What are the Benefits of Producing Palm Oil for Some communities?
Education for children, improved standard of living and household income
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What are 3 of the biggest markets for Palm Oil?
Unilever, PepsiCo and Nestle
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How much land in Indonesia has been cleared for Palm oil production?
13 Million hectares of rainforest (3x size of Switzerland)
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What is Global Governance?
The sum of the many ways individuals and institutions, public and private manage their global affairs
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What is the Jurisdictional gap?
The gap between the increasing needs for Global Governance in many areas (e.g. health and water security) and the lack of an authority with the power or jurisdiction to take action
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What is the Incentive gap?
The gap between the need for an international cooperation and the motivation to undertake it
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What is the Participation gap?
Refers to the fact that international cooperation remains primarily the affair of governments
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What are 3 main social purposes of the United Nations?
Eradicate and prevent global hunger, Eradicate and combat the spread of global disease, Reduce poverty and improve standards of living worldwide within a sustainable framework
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What is the United Nations role for the Environment?
To promote and support wise use and sustainable development of the Global Environment
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What are the main UN organisations that aim to eradicate and prevent global hunger?
World Food Programme (WFP) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO)
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How has the WFP and the FAO helped eradicate and prevent global hunger?
They have negotiated fairer trade agreements between HICs and LICs and applied agrotechnologies to increase food yields
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What is the main organisation that works to Eradicate and combat the spread of global disease?
The World Health Organisation (WHO)
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In what way has the WHO been successful?
Reduced Global Mortality rate and eradication of small pox and near eradication of Polio
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What has the WHO organisation failed to do?
Aid pandemic continues to cross countries and continents
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What is the Global commons?
The parts of the earth that fall outside national jurisdictions and to which all nations have access to
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What are the 4 Global Commons?
High seas and deep oceans, The Atmosphere, Antarctica and outerspace
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What treaties and conventions govern Antarctica?
The Antarctic treaty system and the Protocol on environmental protection
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What is the Locale?
Effect people have on a setting
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What is the average temperature in Antactica?
-49 Degrees C
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What % of the earths freshwater is in Antarctica?
70%
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How thick is Antarctic ice in some places?
4km
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What are the 3 main things impacting Antarctica?
Tourism, Climate Change and Fishing, Whaling and Mineral Exploitation
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What impact has fishing had on Antarctic seals?
By 1800s Fur seals were wiped out in South Georgia
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What impact has whaling in Antarctica had?
In the 19th century blue and right whales started being exploited for baleen and oil, by 1985 stocks were dangerously low most commercial whaling ceased
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What was implemented to stop commercial whaling?
The International whaling commission (IWC)
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Which country recently pulled out of the IWC?
Japan, restarting july 2019
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What has Russia and Japan been exploiting?
The southern sea for cod, rock and Krill
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What impact has climate change had on Antarctica?
Melting of ice shelves, decreasing albedo, more melting- positive feedback, melting of permafrost-releasing CO2 = positive feedback loop
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What impact has Tourism had on Antarctica?
Trampling, Antarctic Ecosystems are very fragile therefore are more vulnerable when tourists arrive, rubbish is left behind as well, invasive species introduced (e.g. Mediterranean mussel)
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How has the impact of tourism in Antarctica been limited?
Limit number of people getting of ships, human waste taken back home, People are educated about impacts and how to reduce them,
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On average, how many people visit Antarctica a year?
40,000
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What is the work of the ATS?
Guarantee free access and research rights to all countries, prohibit nuclear activity such as nuclear bomb tests, ban dumping of nuclear waste
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How did Jaccues Cousteau help govern Antarctica?
Helped restrict commercial whaling and helped stop underwater dumping of nuclear waste
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What impact does decreased krill populations have?
Decreased food for whales and penguins
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are Trading Blocs?

Back

Bringing countries together to trade which support free trade between member countries without incurring tariffs or charges

Card 3

Front

What country can be used for Global systems?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Where is Uganda located?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why shouldn't Uganda be poor?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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