Global Distribution of Tectonic Hazards

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What is the Ring of Fire?
The area surrounding the Pacific Ocean which is very tectonically active, with over 3/4 of all earthquakes occurring there.
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With which types of plate boundaries are the most powerful earthquakes associated?
Convergent and Conservative
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What causes intra-plate earthquakes?
Intra-plate earthquakes (those which occur away from plate boundaries) are caused by weakness in a plate due its movement over a spherical object.
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Which type of plate boundaries are responsible for the most powerful volcanoes?
Destructive
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What causes volcanoes away from plate boundaries?
Hotspots, hot thermal plumes rising from deep within the Earth, which melts rock enough to form magma which rises through cracks in the crust.
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What are the results of divergent plate boundaries in the oceans?
Spreading ridges form where new oceanic crust is created by rising magma, eg. Mid Atlantic Ridge.
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What are the results of divergent plate boundaries on land?
Rift Valleys (eg. East African Rift Valley) are formed. Volcanoes here are not explosive and magma has a low viscosity. Earthquakes are small but frequent. Overall a low hazard.
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What are the results of a conservative plate boundary?
There is no volcanic activity, instead shallow focus earthquakes of high magnitude occur as one plate slides along another.
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What are the results of convergent plate boundaries on land?
Large fold mountain ranges (eg. Himalayas) are formed.
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What are the results of convergent plate boundaries when a continental and oceanic plate meet?
Pressure builds in a subduction zone, earthquakes occur in the Benioff Zone and Volcanoes form through melting of the plate to create magma. There are frequent earthquakes and infrequent, but explosive volcanic eruptions.
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Card 2

Front

With which types of plate boundaries are the most powerful earthquakes associated?

Back

Convergent and Conservative

Card 3

Front

What causes intra-plate earthquakes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Which type of plate boundaries are responsible for the most powerful volcanoes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What causes volcanoes away from plate boundaries?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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