- Created by: Fxck_ambz
- Created on: 30-09-16 16:53
What is meant by good change
economic growth-an economy getting bigger. economic development involves a change in economy . economic growth means a rise in living standards and less poverty. social aspects are education, democracy, health, human rights, gender equality,
1 of 104
what is a combination of economic and social factors
eradication of poverty
2 of 104
economic well-being referred to as gross nationl income (GNI) measured in per capita (per person per population)
3 of 104
economic growth doesnt cover all aspects of social development. rise in GNI doesnt mean rise in standard of living.
4 of 104
GNI is just an average
doesnt mean rise in standard of living for all it's members
5 of 104
GNI only counts what happens in the official economy
doesnt count food grown for ones consumption.
6 of 104
economic growth is unlikely to mean sustainable development GNI can be accompanied by problems
such as crime rates and the loss of a community as well as environmental degradation.
7 of 104
education: percentage of school age children attending school. health-children mortality rates, maternal mortality rates, number of doctors and hospitals in relation to population. democracy -free elections. gender equality-differences between gender
8 of 104
The human development index
three aspects: education, health (life expectancy), material standard of living. country score between 1 and 0. highest score is 1. Norway, Australia and Switzerland at the top. Lowest ranking Niger, Democratic republic of congo.
9 of 104
how many countries have high human development
102 countries, 43 have low human development. of the 30 lowest 27 of the countries are in Africa.
10 of 104
whole countries measured by GNI. not by individuals and households as different measure is needed GNI can only give an average. Millenium development goal of having the proportion of people living in extreme poverty by 2015.
11 of 104
global development is about overcoming poverty because this allows people to develop their potential
12 of 104
Modernization theory suggests some countries remain in poverty due to their development barriers. Do you agree?
Stages of Rostow Model of Economic Growth: Traditional society-substinence., Pre-conditions for take off-western values begin to take hold such as new technologies,roads and birdges , take off-new class , drive to maturity, high mass consumption
13 of 104
cultural more important than economic changes. developing countries need "modern values " to make progress. three sources share these values education-, mass media-Lerner- media is a powerful tool in the impact of social development and urbanisation
14 of 104
values should be universal, meritocratic systems and individual achievement.
15 of 104
The Millenium development goals
set by UN as targets for the world to achieve by 2015. by the end some goals had been met but it was clear some would not be met
16 of 104
first world- industrialised capitalist world- USA, western europe, japan, Australia, New zealand. Second world: industrialised communist world - the Soviet union, eastern european satelittes.
17 of 104
What was the third world
central and south america and the carribean, africa, asia, the middle east
18 of 104
North and South (west)
The developed countries in the North, the undeveloped in the south. The west is the most industrialised countries
19 of 104
Where was this used? (North and South)
Brandt commision recommended strategies to reduce world poverty in 1980
20 of 104
Problems with the north and south divide
The countries don't all fit neatly into the geographical pattern for example Australia and New Zealand are in the south but in term of development belong north.
21 of 104
Majority and Minority worlds
Majority refers to the third world as two-thirds of the population live there. minority refers to the rich world as only privileged minority have high living standards.
22 of 104
Developed and undeveloped.
Undeveloped refers to a country being poor but has the ability to catch up. Underdeveloped refers to the country being exploited by the rich world/
23 of 104
MEDS, LEDCS and LLEDCS
more economically developed countries (MEDCs), less economically developed countries (LEDCs), Least economically developed countries (LLEDCs).
24 of 104
The bottom billion
Paul Collier used bottom billion as many parts of the third world had some degree of developmeng. the remaining problem is the lack of development in Africa and in other countries who face war and other factors.
25 of 104
referred to the 58 countries as "Africa plus" and the population accounts for a sixth of world's people. economic growth brings progress on social indicators so the world needs to concentrate its efforts on the countries of the bottom billion.
26 of 104
What did Collier say about the Millenium Development goals
it was misguided as the focus needs to be on the bottom billion only.
27 of 104
Talcott Parsons identifies features which are hinderence "underdeveloped countries are backwards looking" it inhibits social mobility
28 of 104
an intervention by richer countries was crucial primary barrier to development is lack of money which means no money to spend on infrastructure.
29 of 104
two ways of getting money
overseas development aid- gifts and loans from rich countries in form of money expertise and technology. foreign direct investment -foreign countries build factories in developing countries downside of this is it would trickle down to people buying.
30 of 104
economic barrier to development
is a closed system as not enough economic capital for the country to develop. lack the funding to develop.
31 of 104
pros and cons of modernization theory
pros: some parts are more developed than its counterparts. con: government is corrupt. it is a big generalisation say all countries are poor.rich countries are superior. poor countries refuse help from rich countries.
32 of 104
first world, second world and third world heirarchies
first world-capitalist, second world-communist , third world-excluded in the cold war and poorest area
33 of 104
The second world crashed down when?
after the collapse of the soviet union
34 of 104
Advantages of the heirarchy
The heirachal structure is a simplification and recognises the differences that are non-economic
35 of 104
Disadvantage of the heirachy
an oversimplification and its ethnocentric
36 of 104
the nothern and southern divide
North-most industrialised. South-least industrialised.
37 of 104
Critics of the northern-southern divide
The heirarchy is geographical and australia belongs north but is located south
38 of 104
majority & minority
majority-the poor, the minority - the rich
39 of 104
strength of the majority - minority
Ignores the geogrhical references and overly politicised language of development
40 of 104
other conventional types
former communist countries- Eastern europe, newly industriliased countries-brazil and mexico, more economically developed countries-britain, japan, USA, least economically developed countries-Niger, Sierre Leone, The congo.
41 of 104
Gross domestic product-the number of good and services a country produces. GDP/population
42 of 104
critics of GDP
doesnt distribute wealth within a country and can cause further inequality. ethnocentric seeing wealth associated with well-being.
43 of 104
Human development index
calculated by the UN on education, wealth and life expectancy to score between 0 and 1.
44 of 104
Advantage of Human Development Index
doesnt reduce development to one particular factor.
45 of 104
Disadvantage of Human Development Index
is blind to inequalities.
46 of 104
Associated with World Bank, Transnational Corporations, Structural adjustment programmes.
47 of 104
When was neoliberalism introduced??
1970s by Peter Bauer and Milton Friedman
48 of 104
How does development work according to Neoliberals
should follow path of the rich but not by adopting the same path and should reject help from the rich .
49 of 104
What is crucial to development?
Trade, creating a free market so government involvement is reduced. Red Tape and Taxation reduced where possible Adam smith "invisible hand " to supply and demand,.
50 of 104
what is underdevelopment according to Neoliberals
trade restriction. A great deal focused with the government in the majority world.
51 of 104
What hinders growrth
trade centred policies. Bauer-approach make countries stagnate by preventing change. Aid-seen as improving corrupt government and breeds dependency
52 of 104
What do neoliberals aim to do?
create countries which attract Transnational corporations.
53 of 104
Evaulation of Neoliberals :weaknesses
Have great emphasis of the free market however have a misguided view.Privatisation of public services leave poor people locked out of health care and education etc. Structural adjustment programmes throw local producers into market with no health law
54 of 104
Evaluation of Neoliberals: Strength
Great economic principles and influential views.
55 of 104
Evaluating of modernization theory : Strengths
Countries can develop as much as britain doesnt matter about starting points, countries which have adopted modernization thory have genuinely improved quality of life.
56 of 104
Evaluating modernization theory : weaknesses
If all countries were as developed as Britain we would need 8 times the resources, Some countries appear superior, reproduces inequalities, ethnocentric approach, government corruption, countries are resistant to change,
57 of 104
overdependence can cause damage to the environment.
58 of 104
Evaluation of the dependency theory :strength
impracticality - modernization theory suggests that building factories will help economies but theres more factors that impede development. B
59 of 104
Evaluation of the dependency theory: weakness-
says a lot about development being impossible due to the history of colonialism and doesnt say much about solutions , role of homegrown elites- Western companies gain access to satelittes through elites in these countries,
60 of 104
weaknesses of dependency theory
creation of infrastructure-colonialism provides basic infrastructure for many satelittes countries - was it that bad? Benefits to developing nations- success of tiger nations was from heavy funding in Japan
61 of 104
conducted an analysed concluded that exploitative relationships are due to capitalism
62 of 104
when was dependency theory introduced?
1960s. Marxist approach "view from the south" poverty isnt natural
63 of 104
began 700 years ago. Colombus -merchant explorer set out to discover trade routes. Local leaders were bribed. Informal trade networks established.
64 of 104
informal relationships formalised. European powers took direct power over countries of majority world. Spain and Portugals conquest began in the 15th century
65 of 104
Economies from agricultural to production of raw materials. Small industries collapse as they cannot keep up with mass productive industries.
66 of 104
the colonial powers claim states in the territories they had claimed. this broke families apart and forcing together groups with nothing in common. Governance systems wre established with corruption
67 of 104
cultures undermined and knowledge destroyed. The European powers saw them as inferior so they forced more "civilized" way of life.
68 of 104
19th and 20th centuries saw a process of decolonisation because Europe pulled out of colonies. This caused the illusion of exploitation being removed. Nation state replaced with corporations as the exploitative power.
69 of 104
industrialisation results in environmental damage with three themes: toxins get reeased into the atmosphere such as air pollution. overuse of resources. loss of biodiversity
70 of 104
people centred approach
model has links with Gandhi. modernization fails to explain how the world is changing
71 of 104
what did modernization theory and dependency fail to explain?
the world is changing.
72 of 104
who is the theorist behind people centred approach?
David Booth developed the theory impasse highlighting the reasons fo the theories failures.
73 of 104
What did the theory impasse say about failure of modernization theory
globalization-not all accept this but brings about debates. Environmentalism-industrialization causes environmental damage. failure of development- In 1960 and 1970 development was occuring 1980 was lost decade and it took a step back.
74 of 104
postmodernism and development
Marxist have an idea about development western valus and social evolution are explained.
75 of 104
The worlds system theory
Wallertsein 1970 - heirarchy of developed and least developed countries
76 of 104
whats on the heirarchy
the core (the developed), the semi-periphery (the Brazil and south Africa), the periphery (
77 of 104
are barriers internal and external according to the world system theory
external emphasis as capitalism doesnt respect national borders.
78 of 104
why do economies fail according to Frobel?
79 of 104
people centred approach ; development is based on
sustainability -using resources and local knowledge. participation - communities get involved, set own goals and make decisions, justice- democratic decisions -involving all groups particularly women. meeting basic needs,
80 of 104
What is people centred approach known as?
"Grass roots development" "Bottom Up" approach refers to the people centred development
81 of 104
What does environmentalism focus on
82 of 104
1990s. Development criticsed as being ethnocentric. western nations seens to be too superior. Arturo Escobar - changes are neded but argue cant be no universal model and people must be involved.
83 of 104
pro of people centred approach
improves the lives of people however doesnt bring them out of poverty.
84 of 104
features of neoliberalism
privatization- selling to private companies-free market. cutting subsidies - as this will reduce the need for dependency , getting rid of "parastatal " government such as marketing boards through which government regulates production. cutting taxes
85 of 104
assessing neoliberal policies weaknesses:
Center for economic and policy research compared 1960 to 1980 with life expectancy, mortality rates, literacy and education. report found progress greater before 1980
86 of 104
what havent neoliberals found?
no evidence to support claims that the Washington Consensus is the best route to development.
87 of 104
Economic globalization : Features
media, technology, communication, global, money , capitalism, consumerism , free market.
88 of 104
growing interconnectedness between countries, regions and people as the same consumer goods, brands stretch across the globe.
89 of 104
Frobel et al
sprwad of TNCS and improvements in travel and communication changed the earlier pattern
90 of 104
1) Spread of capitalism
Chinese moved from state control to adopt capitalist system
91 of 104
2) The growth and strength of TNCS
make same products in many countries.
92 of 104
effiency, control, calculability, predictability
93 of 104
4) finance and money markets
financial events affect everyone banks and money move quickly.
94 of 104
spread of western values
95 of 104
world sport, communications and information, world tourism, equality, cosmopolitan lifestyle, global patterns e.g mcdonalds.
96 of 104
strengths of cultural globalization
communication - social media e.g mass diversity new cultures., ensures equality
97 of 104
weaknesses of cultural globalization
resistance to change- causes conflict. some countries block connections.
98 of 104
when government action takes place globally such as welfare of citizens are acted open
99 of 104
what is economic growth
growth of the economy. increase in goods and services.
100 of 104
pros of political globalization
access to aid and support. world peace. reduces risk of invasions . smaller countries work together. government learn from each other.
101 of 104
cons of political globalization
influence goes down for state nations. big countries shape decisions. expensive to speak to one another. countries slow down decision making processes,
102 of 104
theories of globalization
globalists believe that globalization exists: has an effect on people, nation states ar being eroded. it is having an impact on organizations, culture is being eroded.
103 of 104
globalization produces tolerant citizens,
104 of 104
Other cards in this set
what is a combination of economic and social factors
eradication of poverty
GNI is just an average