Gibson and Walk- Findings/ methodology

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27/36
Number who moved off the centre board (9 infants didn't move at all)
1 of 16
27/27
Out of the 27 that moved, they all crawled to the shallow side to their mother.
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3
Only 3 infants tried to crawl on to the 'deep' side
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What did the infants do when their mother called them to the deep side?
Many of the infants crawled away from the 'deep' side. Others cried cause they couldn't get to her without going over the cliff.
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Where did the chicks, kids and lambs move to?
They hopped off the centre board to the 'shallow' side and never on to the 'deep' side.
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What happened to the kids/lambs when they were placed on the 'deep' side?
They froze in a posture of defence
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What did the normally reared kittens do?
They preferred the shallow side and froze of circled back to the centre when placed on the deep side.
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What did the kittens reared in the dark do?
They crawled onto the deep and shallow side equally and did not freeze on the deep side- however after 1 week in the light, they avoided the deep side.
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24%
Percentage of aquatic turtles that crawled onto the deep side (perhaps they cannot fall in the sea?)
9 of 16
What did the hooded rats do?
They were content to explore both sides, as they could use their whiskers not their sight- however when the centre board was raised they nearly always crawled onto the shallow side (95-100% of the time).
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What did some infants do to the deep side to check if it was safe of not?
They patted the glass but still would not cross.
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Reliability
:-) same age (6-14 months, 1 day, 4 weeks), same time reared in the dark (27 days), same visual cliff (up to 30cm above the floor), Placed on the same place (centre board on deep side), confounding variables were controlled (lighting underneath)
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Validity
:-( Was completed under standardised procedures so lacked mundane realism as infants would not be called by their mother to cross over a cliff ect :-) Animals do come across cliffs in real life and have to use dp
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Sampling
:-) 36 is a large sample of human infants, a range of different animals used (humans, chicks, rats, kittens...), all had independent locomotion.
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Data
:-) Qualitative- some patted the glass, some cried or crawled away when their mother called them. :-) Quantitative- 27/36 moved off the centre board, 27/27 moved to shallow side, 3 tried to crawl to deep side.
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Ethics
:-) Protected from physical harm as a glass shelf was used. :-( Psychological harm could have been cause as the infants wanted to go to their mother but they did not feel safe to do so- cried and felt scared.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

27/27

Back

Out of the 27 that moved, they all crawled to the shallow side to their mother.

Card 3

Front

3

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What did the infants do when their mother called them to the deep side?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Where did the chicks, kids and lambs move to?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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