Germany: Unit 1.

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When did Germany stop fighting in WW1?
11 November 1918.
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When and where did the new democratic government first meet?
January 1919 in Weimar, southern Germany.
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Why was the Weimar weak?
Coalition governments, PR, Chancellor, Frequent changes of government, Article 48.
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What was the Reichstag?
The German parliament.
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When was the Treaty of Versialles signed?
28 June 1919.
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What were the four main clauses of the treaty of versailles?
LAMB: Territorial. Military. Financial. Political.
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Explain the terrritorial terms of the treaty.
Germany lost 13% of its land, 6 million citizens and all her colonial possessions. The Saarland was to be administered by the League of Nations.
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Explain the military terms of the treaty.
The German army ws to be limited to 100,000 men and it was forbidden for the army to own tanks, heavy guns, aircraft or submarines.
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Explain the financial terms of the treaty.
Clause 231: the war guilt clause. Germany had to accept full responsibility for causing the war and had to pay £6600 Million in reparations.
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Explain the political terms of the treaty.
Germany was forbidden to join the new League of Nations.
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What gave amunition to the opponents of the Weimar?
The shame and humiliation of the treaty combined with the fact that Germans could not negotiate any of the terms angered many Germans especially the extreme parties.
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Who was put in charge of the Nazi party's propaganda machine in 1920?
Adolf Hitler.
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What did Hitler and Anton Drexler do in February 1920?
Wrote the Nazi 25 point programme which became the party's political manifesto.
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How many members did the Nazi part have by November 1923?
55,000
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When did Hitler set up the Sturmabteilung (SA)? What did they do?
1921 - led by Ernst Rohm. They had to protect Nazi party speakers from attacks by from rival political groups.
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What did Germany fail to do in 1923?
Make the second reparations payment. As a result of this French and Belgium troops marched into the Ruhr to take control of the coalfields.
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What were German workers encouraged to do un 1923?
Go on strike because of the French invasion of the Ruhr. The government had to print money to pay the workers and this caused inflation.
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What did Hitler do during the uproar?
Hitler thought the time was right for the Nazi party to seize power first in the Bavarian state capital of Munich and then followed by a march on berlin.
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What was the Munich Putsch? When was it?
8 November 1923. Hitler and 600 SA men burst into a public meeting held at the Burgerbrau beer hall in Munich. A nazi force of 2000 SA men were met by the police when the marched through Munich the following day.
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List the ideas Hitler expressed in Mein Kampf.
Social Darwinism, Anti-Semitism, Anti-Communism, Lebensraum, Volksgemeinschaft.
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What were the 3 main things Hitler achieved upon his release from prison?
Created his own bodyguard the SS, Introduced the Hitler Jugend, Increased membership to over 100,000 by 1928.
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What did Gustav Stresseman do between 1924 and 1929? Why was this important?
Organised economic recovery. His policies disuaded people from voting for the extreme parties meaning the nazis won only 12 seats in the 1928 election.
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What was te impact of the Wall Street Crash and the Great Depression?
American banks recalled their loans and German companies were forced to lay of workers.
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How many people were unemploted by 1932?
6 Million.
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Why did support for the nazis and the communists rise sharply in September 1930.
Weimar politicians appeared to be doing too little too late and the desperate people turned to the extremist parties for solutions.
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What significant event happened in January 1933?
Von Papen and Hitler ran a Nazi-Nationalist government
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List the 5 main reasons for Nazi electoral success.
Impact of the depression, Hitler, Propaganda, Financial support, The use of the SA.
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Explain the term Totalitarain.
A state that has a 1 party political system which holds total power.
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When was the Reichstag fire?
27 February 1933.
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Why was the Reichstag fire significant?
Hitler used it to persuade Hindenburg to sign the 'Decree for the protection of the people and the state'. Communist and Socialist newspapers were banned.
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What was the enabling act of 23 March 1933?
It marked the end of the Weimar constitution. Communists were banned from entering and SA men surrounded the building preventing known opponents from entering.
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What were 5 main uses of the enabling act?
Control of the states, Control of the press, Ban on political parties, Ban on trade unions, Purge of the civil service.
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What was the night of the long knives? When was it?
30 June 1934. Hitler used the SS to carry out a purge, over 400 enemies of the state were arrested and shot.
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What was the importance of the Night of the Long Knives?
Eradicated opponents to Hitler's rule, Secured support of the army, Relegated the SA to a minor role, Provided Himmler with the opportunity to expand the SS.
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When did Hitler become Fuhrer?
2 August 1934. The officers and men of the German Army were made to swear an oath of loyalty to the Fuhrer. Hitler was absolute dictator of Germany.
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Card 2

Front

When and where did the new democratic government first meet?

Back

January 1919 in Weimar, southern Germany.

Card 3

Front

Why was the Weimar weak?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What was the Reichstag?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

When was the Treaty of Versialles signed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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