Germany Revision- Topic Area 1- The rise of the Nazi Party and it's consolidation of power

Topic Area 1- The rise of the Nazi Party and it's consolidation of power

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When did the german kaiser abdicate? And what did Germany become?
9th November 1918, a republic
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What date was the WW1 armistice signed?
11th November 1918
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What was the constituent assembly and where did they meet?
Temporary government constituting of elected members, met in Weimar, led to name of 'Weimar Republic'
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Name the two presidents who took terms durig the time of the Weimar Republic
frederich Ebert (1918-25) Paul Von Hindenburg(1925-34)
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Why was the weimar republic's system of voting a weakness?
Used proportional representation
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Why did proportional representation cause problems?
Made it difficult for one party to achieve an overall majority and led to weak coalition governments
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What could Hindenburg use at his wish and what did it mean?
Article 48- meant he could rule on 'presidential decree' snd pass laws without approval from the Reichstag
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Who appointed the chancellor and who was the chancellor supposed to be?
The president, supposed to be the leader of the largest political party. However Hindenburg appointed his own chancellors via article 48.
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When was the Treaty of Versailles signed and what were its main terms?
28th June 1919. L-lost land & citizens A-army limited to 100,000 men, many weapons forbidden, rhineland demilitarised M-forced to pay large raparations B-Germany forced to accept blame
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What year was Hitler put in charge of the German Workers Party's propaganda
1920
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Who wrote the '25 point programme' and when was it written?
Hitler & Drexler, February 1920
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When did Hitler become the leader of the party? And what did he change the name to?
July 1921, National Socialist German Worker's Party
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What name did he adopt and which symbols did he introduce?
Fuhrer, swastika and raised arm salute
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Hitler set up the SA, who was in charge and what was their job?
Ernst Rohm, protecting nazi speakers and officials
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What resulted from the strike of German workers in 1923?
Collaps of currency, inflation, by November of 1923 hyperinflation
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When was the munich putsch? Explain briefly what happened
8-9 November, 8th Nov. Hitler and SA took over meeting of ministers (von Kahr&Von Lossow)in beer hall in Munich. At gunpoint ministers agreed to help in planned takeover of Munich. However ministers were allowed free and the police were informed.
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What happened the day after the beer hall incident and what were the effects of the Munich Putsch?
Hitlers Nazis were met by the police, 16 Nazis& 4 policemen killed, Hitler was arrested and the Nazi party was banned
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When was Hitlers trial,how long did it last? Who did he critiscise in his trial speeches?
Feb 1924, 1 month. November Criminals, Treaty of Versailles and the Jewish Bolshevists
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What was Hitlers sentence, how long did he actually serve?
5 years, 9 months.
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When in prison Hitler had two breakthrough thoughts name them
1. He realised the need for a change in strategy and the need for the Nazis to do well in the polls as opposed to mpower by force. 2.Hitler began to plan his book- Mein Kampf
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One of Hitler's main ideas expressed in Mein Kamp was Volksgeoneinschaft what was it?
Creation of a peoples' community
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One of Hitler's main ideas expressed in Mein Kamp was the treatment of the Treaty Of versailles explain this
He believed in abolishing the treaty and reversing it's terms
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One of Hitler's main ideas expressed in Mein Kamp was Lebensraum, what was this?
To obtain living space in order to create a 'greater Germany' in Eastern Europe where averone would speak German under one nation
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One of Hitler's main ideas expressed in Mein Kamp was Anti-Semitism, what was this?
The hatred of Jews and belief that all ills in society were caused ny theJews and that they needed to be removed from German society.
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One of Hitler's main ideas expressed in Mein Kamp was Anti-Communism what did he believe?
Hitler believed that the November Criminals were all socialist and communist politicians
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One of Hitler's main ideas expressed in Mein Kamp was Social Darwinism, what ws this?
The idea of superior races, the belief that Aryan Germans were superior to 'inferior races' such as Jews and Blacks
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What did Hitler do upon his release from prison? name at least 3.
1.Un-ban the Nazi Party. 2.Create the SS his personal bodyguard 3.Introduced the Hitler Jugend(youth) 4.Attacked the Weimar''s weaknesses
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By 1928 how many members did the Nazi party have? However how many seats did they win in the Reichstag in 1928?
Over 100,000. 12 Seats
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What did unemployment in Germany peak at in 1932?
6.2 million
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Who did President Hindenburg appoint as chancellor in 1930? And what was he known as?
Bruning, the 'hunger chancellor'
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Who did Hindenburg appoint as chancellor instead of Hitler in the 1932 elections?
Von Papen
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Who was appointed chancellor in november 1932?
Von schleicher
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In January 1933 what was formed? And who did it involve?
Nazi-Nationalist government with Hitler as chancellor and von-Papen as vice-chancellor
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Why did the depression contribute to Nazi electoral success?
Millions changed their votes, people felt they had to resort to more contraversial parties in order for change to occur.
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Why did Hitler'sappeal contribute to Nazi electoral success?
Gifted speaker, toured Germany making great speeches, allowed people to place blame on scapegoats for Germany's problems namely Jews & Communists
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How did the Nazis use propaganda to gain electoral support?
Dr Josef Goebbels in charge. Used rallies, posters, radio and cinema to infiltrate every aspect of German life with Nazi propaganda
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How did the SA encourage Nazi electoral success?
Protected Nazi speakers during meetings, disrupted meetings of rivals e.g communists and used bully boy methods to remove support for opposition. Openly causef street fights with opposition.
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What were Hitler's promises to women?
Emphasis on family life and values. Emphasis upon children's welfare and health.
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What were Hitler's promises to big industries?
Protection against communism. Curb the growth of trade unions.
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What were Hitler's promises to farmers?
To reverse agricultural price decreases
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What were Hitker's promises to the working classes?
To tackle unemployment. Provide decent wages. Protect workers' rights.
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What were Hitler's promises to the upper classes?
Protect them from the threat of Communism. Allow them to retain wealth. Restre Germany's status within the world.
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What were Hitler's promises to the middle classes?
Protection against communism. Increase to living standards. Restoration of law and order
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By August 1934 Chancellor and President had been merged into what?
One position 'The Furher'
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For 12 years *1933-1945) Germany became what?
A totalitarian dictaorship named The Third Reich
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What date was the Reichstag fire?
27th February 1933
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Who was arrested and blamed for the Reichstag Fire?
Dutch communist- Van der Lubbe
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How did the Nazis use the Reichstag fire to their advantage?
Hitler claimed communists were planning a revolution. Hitler coninvced Hindenburg to sign 'decree for the protection of the people and state' meaning Hitler could restrict free speech/press and imprison people without trial. Communist and socialist n
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What was formed on the 5th March 1933?
Coalition government between Nazi and National Party,
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What date was the enabling act passed?
23rd March 1933
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Who was banned from entering the building during the passing of the enabling act and who were counted as present?
Communists and other political opponants, absentees (therefore in favour)
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Who did Hitler make promises to when he was passing the enabling act?
The catholic centre party
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What was the final result of votes for The Enabling Bill?
444 for and 94 against
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Via the enabling act what policy could Hitler enforce and what does it mean?
gleichschaltung- nazi policy bringing all social, economic and political activites under state control.
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How did the enabling act allow control of the state?
30th January 1934 state assemblies were abolished and replaced by Rech governers
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How did the enabling act allow a purge of the civil service?
1933 Jews and political rivals were removed from the civil services.
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How did the enablling act allow control of the press?
October 1933 Reich press law imposed control and censorship of the press.
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How did the enabling act allow a ban on political parties?
14th July 1933, Nazi Party was made the only legal politicla party. Germany became a one party state. Law against the formation of parties enforced.
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How did the enabling act effect trade unions?
2nd May 1933 all trade unions were banned and replaced by the German Labour Front (DAF). Strikes were made illegal.
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What date was the Night Of The Long Knives?
30th June 1934
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By the 30th June 1934 what did Roehm wish for?
The army to inorporate into the SA, and for himself to become more politically involved and push a socialist revolution to remove Germany's class structure.
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Why did Hitler believe Roehm and the SA had to be removed?
Increased size of the SA made Hitler see them as a aoscialist threat. Hitler also sought the army's support but knew they'd never agree with Roehms plans. Roehm was also gay and went against many of Hitler's beliefs and views.
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Who did Hitler use to carry out his purge on the SA?
His personal bodyguard the SS
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How many 'enemies of the state' were shot in the night of the long knives?
over 400 including Roehm, von schleicher and von kahr
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Why was the Night of the long knives a turning point in establishing Hitlers's dictatorship?
Eradicated possible opponants in the SA. Secured support of the army. Relegated the SA to a minor role. Provided Himmler with the oppurtunity to expand the SS.
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What date did Hindenburg die?
2nd August 1934
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What di Hitler combine after Hindenburg's death?
Position of chancellor and President creating the 'Furher'
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After Hindenburg's death what were members of the armed forces forced to do?
Swear an oath of loyalty to the army.
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Card 2

Front

What date was the WW1 armistice signed?

Back

11th November 1918

Card 3

Front

What was the constituent assembly and where did they meet?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Name the two presidents who took terms durig the time of the Weimar Republic

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why was the weimar republic's system of voting a weakness?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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