Germany : From Defeat to Unity 1945 - 1991

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The Unity of Social and Economic Policy
Introduced by Honecker to increase production and finance social reform in the early 1970s
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Cooperation Councils
Established to coordinate the work of agriculture in the GDR
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Period from 1968 - 1980 of relaxed cold war tensions
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Prague Spring
Attempt to introduce liberal reform in Czecholslovakia
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Hallstein Doctrine
FRG refuse to have diplomatic relations with any country that recognises the GDR (except Russia)
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FRG policy created by Brandt to normalise relations, consisted of the Moscow treaty, the Warsaw treaty, the Prague treaty, the Four Power Berlin agreement and the Basic Treaty.
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Moscow Treaty 1970
FRG accept Eastern borders (e.g. GDR and Poland), no longer claimed to represent all Germans and agreed the GDR should join the UN.
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Warsaw Treaty 1970
FRG and Poland recognise the Oder-Neisse border, remaining ethnic Germans in Poland are allowed to emigrate to the FRG and the FRG promise trade and financial aid to Poland
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Prague Treaty 1970 - 1973
1938 Munich Treaty which had incorporated the Sudetenland into Germany declared void. Czech's post 1945 borders were recognised. Ethnic Germans in Czech could emigrate to the FRG
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Four Power Berlin Agreement 1971
USSR and GDR recognise West Berlin's ties with the FRG and the right of West Berliners to visit the FRG
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Basic Treaty 1973
FRG recognise GDR. GDR citizens regarded as 'German' and were entitled to FRG citizenship. Emphasis on working for better human contact and communication between the two states. West Berliners could stay in East Berlin for one full day.
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Basic Law 1949
'Grundgesetz' - established the framework of government and guaranteed freedom of expression, assembly, association and movement. Also committed the FRG to work towards the full unity of Germany and recognise all people of German decent as citizens.
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GDR constitution of 1974
Emphasised 'Abgrenzung' (seperation) to give the GDR its own national identity. It also emphasised 'solidarity' and 'undying friendship' with the USSR
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Solidarity Movement
Liberal Reform movement in Poland 1989
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Perestrokia and Glasnost
Policies taken by Gorbachev in order to deal with the USSR's economic problems, means reconstruction and openness
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Brezhnev Doctrine
Confirmed the USSR's right to interfere in the internal affairs of its satellite states
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Sinatra Doctrine
USSR kept a distance from reformist ideas in satellite states.
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Voluntary Coercion
(Freiwillger Zwang)
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Bequemes Schweigen
Having an easier life by being quiet
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Modus Vivendi
A state built on manipulation, intervention and control which produces subjects that live a life of pretence and compromise their outward opinions in order to be happy)
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Kruschev's 1958 Ultimatium
The Western powers must give up West Berlin and allow Berlin to be free and neutral in 6 months or USSR will hand their half of Berlin to the GDR, meaning that in order to associate itself with West Berlin, the FRG will have to recognise the GDR.
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'Law from the Liberation of National Socialism' 1946
Established new tribunals staffed by Germans and supervised by the allies. 90% emerged exonerated from the British zone
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Peoples army - disbanded pre 1949
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German Economic Commission 1947
Coordinate economic policy in the Soviet zone
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Level of Industry plan 1946
Germany's standard of living should be kept to that of 1932 and should not exceed that of other European countries. Industrial capacity should be reduced to 50% of the 1938 level.
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Paris Conference 1946
Americans propose the joining of zones
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Construction Law 1950
Grants to provide for 4 million new dwellings
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Equalisation of Burdens Act 1953
Compensation to victims of wartime bombing. Raised by a 50% tax levy over 30 years
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Collective Bargaining Law on Industrial Relations 1949
'co-determination' and better relations between workers and employees.
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Pensions Act 1957
Increased pensions by 60-75%
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Reinstatement Act 1951
Ex-Nazis could be reemployed into the civil service
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Investment Aid Law 1951
3.2 million DM to manufacturing industry
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Petersburg Agreement 1949
FRG join the council of Europe
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Bundeswehr 1950
Army for the FRG
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Pleven Plan
French proposal to allow West Germany limited troops but as part of a Western European Army.
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General Treaty 1952
Created the EDC, and abolished occupation statute. FRG recognised as sovereign.
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Treaty of Paris 1951
Created the ECSC, effective from 1952
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Treaty of Rome 1957
Set up the EEC, effective from 1958
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Globke plan
Proposal for the FRG + GDR to recognise each other and turn Berlin into a free city, but a referendum on reunification had to take place. Never discussed due to US plan being shot down over USSR
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Godesberg Programme
SPD changed their approach and declared support for Western integration, dropped opposition to NATO and accepted Social Market Economy.
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Pensions Act 1972
Pensions less dependant of financial contributions
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Education support law 1971
Grants available to allow students from poorer countries to continue their education
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Constitution 1949 GDR
Established the GDR as a liberal state that guaranteed fundamental rights, a separation of powers and democratically elected parliament
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Socialist Realism
Type of culture in the GDR
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The New Economic System 1963
Introduced a more flexible approach to economic planning for the GDR and permitted some decentralisation
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GDR constitution of 1968
Work was a 'duty' for women
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Family Code 1965
Men should shoulder their share of household chores
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Goerlitz treaty
GDR recognise its border with Poland
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New Forum
Sought to establish a political platform for everyone in the GDR
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Democracy Now
alliance of Christians and Marxists to think about "our future, about a society based on solidarity", They called for an election law which guaranteed freedom to vote and secret ballot, and observers from the UN
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Democratic Awakening
Party dedicated to being 'social and ecological'
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East German Social Democratic Party
They wanted an ecologically orientated social democracy. Were not aiming for unity at this stage. Wanted to challenge the SED
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Ottowa Conference 1990
Beginning of reunification agreements
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London Declaration 1990
Transformed NATO's stance from military to political
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Two plus Four Agreement 1990
Germans would renounce all claims to former Eastern territrories, provide financial assistance and make military cuts, in return, the Russians allowed NATO membership and unimpaired soverignity to a united Germany.
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Card 2


Established to coordinate the work of agriculture in the GDR


Cooperation Councils

Card 3


Period from 1968 - 1980 of relaxed cold war tensions


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Card 4


Attempt to introduce liberal reform in Czecholslovakia


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Card 5


FRG refuse to have diplomatic relations with any country that recognises the GDR (except Russia)


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