Germany 1919-1947

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What was Article 48?
The legislation where the President of the country could make any rule they wanted without consulting the Reichstag in a state of emergency.
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What was the problem with Article 48?
It was not specified what a 'state of emergency' was so the President could effectively pass any rule he wanted to once he declared a state of emergency.
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What problems did the Weimar Republic face?
Instability- because most of the governments were coalitions, they were always changing. Change- the coalitions were ever changing so the parties would rarely agree and always change the rules. Inaction- goverment never really got much done.
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Explain proportional representation.
Coalitions would be formed unless one party got the majority of the votes in the Reichstag, for example they would have to get over 51%. Each party who got a percentage of the votes got that amount of seats in the Reichstag.
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What were the main points of the Treaty of Versailles?
Land- Germany had to give up 13% of its land. Army- the German army was reduced and they had submarines taken away, and no troops in Rhineland. Money- they had to pay reparations. Blame- they had to take the blame for causing WW1 (Clause 231).
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What was Clause 231?
The blame clause, where Germany had to take total blame for the outbreak of WW1.
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Who were the 'Big Three' and what did they do?
British Prime Minister (David Lloyd George), French Prime Minister (Georges Clemenceau) and President of USA (Woodrow Wilson). They drew up the Treaty of Versailles.
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What was hyperinflation?
When the value of the Ruhr was decreasing at an alarming rate and money basically meant nothing
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Who helped solve Germany's economic issues?
Stresemann became Chancellor in 1923 and he created a new currency (the Mark) to help stabilise and strengthen the economy.
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What were some key features in Hitler's rise to fame?
Designing the Nazi emblem so it became a household name; having the charisma to hypnotise his audiences into adopting his beliefs; creating the SA to scare people into supporting him; gathering close supporters at the Bamberg Conference.
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What happened at the Bamberg Conference and what year was it?
It occurred in 1926 and it was where Hitler appointed Goebbels as head of propaganda, he created Hitler Youth and the SS (his close personal bodyguard) and he won over Strasser, and forced Rohm to resign as leader of the SA.
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What was the Munich Putsch and what year was it?
It was in 1923 and it was when Hitler held von Kahr, von Seizer and von Lossow in the government building to force them to accept his ideologies. But von Lossow and von Seizer disagreed and told the police as soon as they were released.
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What happened after the Munich Putsch?
There was a 2-day manhunt for Hitler and when he was captured he went to trial and made a prominent speech, but was still imprisoned where he wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle). The army killed some Nazis and the Nazi party was banned.
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Who were the November Criminals?
The Weimar government who accepted the terms of the Treaty of Versailles.
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Why did the Nazi party become so popular?
Hitler made promises to all the classes to keep everyone happy but in reality he couldn't keep them all.
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Who were the Gestapo?
Hitler's secret police who terrorized the people of Germany who opposed Hitler and the ethnic minorities.
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What happened on the night of the Reichstag Fire and when was it?
Happened in 1934. Marinus van der Lubbe shot German official in embassy and then supposedly set fire to Reichstag Building. Convenient for Hitler because he could blame the Communists and save the day- he created a scapegoat.
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Why was the Reichstag Fire convenient for Hitler and the Nazis?
Because he had arranged an election and by blaming the Communists for the fire he was giving people someone to hate, hoping he'd get more votes, but the Nazis still didn't get majority. They joined up with the National Party.
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What was the Enabling Act?
It was where 'civil liberties' were banned so nobody had freedom of speech and Hitler could pass any law he wanted without the permission of the Reichstag so he was totally in control. Communists couldn't vote.
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What was the Night of the Long Knives and when was it?
It waa in 1934 and it was a purge by Hitler to remove all opposition. Rohm was killed, and von Sleicher, and von Kahr.
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What was the importance of the Night of the Long Knives?
It proved that Hitler could do whatever he wanted without consequence and meant he would get the majority because he was practically the only politician left in Germany. It totally removed any remaining opposition.
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How did Hitler remove opposition post 1930?
Banned any parties from continuing/forming, couldn't be challenged by anyone in the Reichstag, controlled the Police.
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How did Hitler increase employment?
Took jobs away from Jews and women, able men were conscripted into the army, more and more factory workers were needed to produce weapons for WW2.
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What were the Nazi beliefs for women?
The 3 K's- Kinder, Kuche, Kirche, or Children, Church, Kitchen. They couldn't wear makeup or have their hair dyed and had to wear traditional clothing.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What was the problem with Article 48?

Back

It was not specified what a 'state of emergency' was so the President could effectively pass any rule he wanted to once he declared a state of emergency.

Card 3

Front

What problems did the Weimar Republic face?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Explain proportional representation.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What were the main points of the Treaty of Versailles?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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