Germany 1918-33

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  • Created on: 10-01-16 20:27
Who was the first leader of the Weimar Republic and what party did he belong to?
Friedrich Ebert - he was a Socialist.
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Who were the two leaders of the Spartacists?
Rosa Luxembourg and Karl Liebknect.
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What did they want?
A Germany ruled by worker's councils or soviets.
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Explain how the Spartacist Uprising was put down.
Bitter street fighting between the Spartacists and the Freikorps (anti-Communist ex-soldiers). Liebknecht and Luxembourg were murdered.
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Where else did the new President Ebert clash with Communists?
Bavaria - Freikorps crushed the Communist revolt in May 1919. Around 600 Communists were killed.
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What was the 'stab in the back myth'? (Part 1)
Ebert and his Weimar Republic were to blame for the Treaty. The injustice of the Treaty became a rallying point for his opponents. They believed that the German army had been 'stabbed in the back' by the Socialist and Liberal politicians.
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What was the 'stab in the back myth'? (Part 2)
The politicians had agreed an armistice in November 1918. They believed that Germany had been betrayed by its civilian politicians who didn't continue the war.
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Explain what happened during the Kapp Putsch.
March 1920 - Kapp lead 5000 Freikorps into Berlin in a rebellion. Army refused to fire on the Freikorps so it looked like Ebert's government was doomed. It was saved by the German workers who declared a general strike. Kapp fled the country.
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Explain how the Ruhr crisis led to hyperinflation (Part 1)
January 1923 - French and Belgian troops entered the Ruhr legally under the Versailles Treaty and took what was owed to them in raw materials. German workers were called to go on strike so there would be nothing for the French to take.
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Explain how the Ruhr crisis led to hyperinflation (Part 2)
The halt in Germany's industrial production in the most important region caused the collapse of the German currency. As it had no goods to trade, the government simply printed more money.
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Explain which groups suffered most as a result of hyperinflation.
Workers needed wheelbarrows to carry home their wages. Poor people suffered. Richer Germans with savings suffered because the value would've decreased drastically.
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What did Stresemann do to solve the hyperinflation crisis?
Replaced the worthless marks with a new currency: Rentenmark.He called off passive resistance in the Ruhr. Negotiated to receive US loans under the Dawes Plan. Renegotiated reparations payments.
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Give 3 ways in which the German economy improved in the mid-20s under Stresemann.
Reparations payments were spread over a longer period, 800 million marks in loans from the USA poured into German industry. In 1928, Germany achieved the same levels of production as before the war.
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Explain how the Dawes Plan worked.
Helped to sort out Germany's economic chaos and to get the economies of the UK and France moving again.
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How many votes did the Nazis get in 1928?
Less than 3%
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What does this tell us about the popularity of the Weimar Republic in 1928?
People supported the Weimar Republic - they got the majority vote.
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Name 2 foreign policy improvements under Stresemann.
1925 - signed the Locarno Treaties. 1926 - Germany accepted into the League of Nations.
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Who were the main economic winners in Germany under Stresemann?
Big businesses which controlled about half of Germany's industrial production. Landowners as the value of land during this period rose by 700%.
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Who were the main economic losers in Germany under Stresemann?
Peasant farmers and sections of the middle classes.
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Why was the election of Hindenburg as President in 1926 a problem for Germany?
He was opposed to democracy.
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Explain who the SA were and what their role within the Nazi Party was.
Hitler's Stormtroopers protected Hitler's meetings and disrupted those of other parties.
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Why was the Munich Putsch unsuccessful?
Weimar government forces hit back. Polic rounded up stormtroopers - 16 Nazis killed. Hitler escaped in a car. Hitler miscalculated the mood of the German people as they did not rise up to support him.
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What was the name of Hitler's book?
Mein Kampf (My Struggle)
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How did Hitler's policy of gaining power change whilst in prison?
Worked within the democratic system to achieve power but, once in power, destroy that system.
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Who was Joseph Goebbels?
Nazi propaganda expert
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What did he and Hitler think was the best way of getting their message to the 'masses'?
Youth organisations and recruitment drives
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Why were the Nazis still a minority party in 1928?
They were still trying to appeal to the German workers - they needed to look elsewhere for support.
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What happened in October 1929 that changed world politics?
An economic depression - the US stock market crashed.
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What effect did this have on the German economy?
To pay off American debts, the US asked German banks to repay the money they had borrowed; the result being economic collapse in Germany. Unemployment rocketed.
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Who did Hitler blame for Germany's problems?
The Allies, November Criminals and the Jews.
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How many Reichstag seats did the Nazis gain in 1930 and 1932?
In 1930, they gained 107 seats. In 1932, they gained almost 200 seats.
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Explain how Nazi campaigning helped them to gain popularity.
They talked about uniting the German people behind one leader. They talked about going back to traditional values. If they were criticised for a specific policy, they would drop it. They expressed contempt for the democratic system. SS gave order.
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Which part of the Weimar Constitution did Hindenburg use to bypass the Reichstag when making laws?
His emergency powers under Article 48.
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What impression did many people in Germany have of democracy?
It involved politicians squabbling over which job they would get in the Cabinet whilst doing nothing about the real world where unemployment was heading towards 6 million and the average German's income had fallen by 40% since 1929.
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Which groups did the Nazis' anti-Communist policies appeal to?
Middle-class business owners, owners of big industries, industrialists and farmers.
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Why was von Papen unable to continue as Chancellor?
He had no support in the Reichstag.
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When did von Schleicher become Chancellor?
December 1932
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How long was he Chancellor for?
A month
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Why did Hindenburg/von Papen decide to appoint Hitler as Chancellor in January 1933?
They were confident they could limit his influence and resist his extremist demands. Hitler would gain support in the Reichstag for the Cabinet's policies and control the Communists.
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When was the Reichstag Fire?
27th February 1933
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Who was blamed and what happened to them?
The Communists were blamed. Hitler used Hindenburg's emergency powers to arrest them, break up meetings and frighten voters.
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Who do they suspect was really responsible for the Reichstag Fire?
The work of a madman, a Communist plot or the Nazis themselves.
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What new powers did Hitler get on 28th February 1933?
The police could arrest suspects and hold them without trial. Hitler could take over regional governments.
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How did Hitler manage to get the Enabling Act passed?
The Nazis gained an overall majority in the March 1933 elections. Using the SA and the SS he intimidated the Reichstag.
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What did the Enabling Act enable Hitler to do?
To make laws without consulting the Reichstag.
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What happened to other political parties?
Communists had been banned. The Catholic Centre Party decided to cooperate with the Nazis.
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Why did Hitler fear Rohm and the SA?
The SA was a badly disciplined force. Rohm talked about making the SA into a second German army. Hitler feared that Rohm's control over the 4 million SA men made him a potentially dangerous rival.
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Who would support Hitler if Rohm was removed from power?
Leading officers in the army
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What happened on the Night of Long Knives?
29-30 June - squads of SS men broke into the homes of Rohm and other leading SA figures and arrested them. Rohm and 400 others were executed, including von Schleicher (a fierce critic of Hitler).
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How did the death of Hindenburg lead to Hitler having more power?
Hitler took over as Supreme Leader (Fuhrer) of Germany. On 2nd August 1934, the entire army swore an oath of personal loyalty to Hitler.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Who were the two leaders of the Spartacists?


Rosa Luxembourg and Karl Liebknect.

Card 3


What did they want?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Explain how the Spartacist Uprising was put down.


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Where else did the new President Ebert clash with Communists?


Preview of the front of card 5
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