german history [up to schlieffen]

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emperor powers
appoint/dismiss chanc, dissolve reichstag, foreign policy, commander in chief
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elected directly, discuss budesrat proposals, cant introduce own legis
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allegiance to the emperor, relied on him for his power
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58 from all states, 17 from prussia [dominated], ratify legis, elevated
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economic growth
360 cartels and syndicates, primary industries established, 1914 industrial superpower
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example of economic growth
by 1913 50% world electric products from germany, 90% world dyes by 1900, benz cars
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example of economic growth 2
num employed in 2ndy and tertiary increased, transformed to urbanised, industry 45%
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navigable rivers, flat northern plain for railway, tariff protection, abundance of raw materials
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reasons 2
population grew rapidly thus large market force, banks free from state control, uni enrolment doubled
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emergence of 4 ideologies
socialism, new darwinism, nationalism, anti-semtism
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order of class
junkers, industrial bourgeosie, middle class, mittlestand, working class
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bulow lasted
1900-1909, manipulator, failed to support in DTA
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1909-1917, hardworking, short-sighted, lack of experience in foreign affairs
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pressure groups existed
agrarian league [junkers led] 1/3 million, pan-german leagure, trade unions and zionists
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german conservative party
land-owning farmers, ultra-conservative, hostile to socialism
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free conservative
back by industrialists and land owners
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national liberal party
party of economic and political liberalism, rep by bankers
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centre party [ZP]
uphold catholic church, denominational appeal not class-based
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german free thought [left liberals]
left, elements of commerical and professional middle class
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marxist, trade unions
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kaiser could always depend on the backing of
german conservative, free conservative and national liberals. but their voting strength decreased
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what did this represent?
traditional governmental support slowly eroded
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whose importance increased?
centre party, won between 90-110 seats until 1912 and SPD start to rise
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who supported kaiser;s 'personal rule'
bulow, tirpitz
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what was weltpolitik
kaiser believed satisfy germans destiny by colonial acquistions, expansion of naval power
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what was DTA?
kaiser made statement to press, bulow backed reichstag, sacked in 1909 after failing to pass budget
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zaber affair?
1913, disturbances led to arrests, protests occured byond alsace, bethmann stood by army, kasier didnt sack
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hottentot election
1904-05. brutality in s/w africa revealed, SPD and centre object, bulow dissolve reich, reelected led to 1/2 SPD seats
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triple alliance
1882, germany, A.H, Italy
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reinsurance treaty
1887, russia and germany at war, the other remain tneutral
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franco-russian alliance
1894, "nightmare of coalitions"
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naval laws
1897-1904. "we demand a place in the sun", 1905 britain concentrated 3/5 fleet in euro waters, HMS dreadnought
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anglo-japanese alliance
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entente cordiale
france, britain,
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1st morocan crisis
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bosnian crisis
1908-09, austria annex bosnia, germany supported
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2nd morocan
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schlieffen plan
prevent war on two fronts - russia in east, france in west
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move through belgium, defeat in 6 weeks, defeat russia in 6 weeks
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violated 1839 neutrility, underestimated russia, relied on railway timetable
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"i know no parties anymore, only germans", political truce between all
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war plans - economic
KRA created to distribute raw materials, exports disrupted, capacity to produce enough food limited
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labour plans
war boards, Auxilliary service law, mobilise pop for war service
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war nutrition office, blockade, conscription, decline in grain supply
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16% met by taxation, massive gov debt
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political change
"silent dictatorship", ludendorff and hindenberg appoint, kaiser lost confidence
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supported by pan-german, victory peace by annexation to achieve world power status
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wanted defensive war, not aimed at conquest
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july crisis 1917
bethmann supported kreuznach, erzberger drafted peace resolution 212-126 votes
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german revolution
1918-19. mutiny in kiel, clear reforms werent enugh, prince max announce kaiser renounce throne
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who was next?
ebert formed coalition government
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who was in the coalition?
spd, spartacists, uspd
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ebert signed
ebert-groener pact and stinnes-legien agreement, neglected far left
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elected directly, discuss budesrat proposals, cant introduce own legis

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economic growth


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