Germ, Blood, Immune and Hormone Secreting Cells

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How do platelets alter their morphology?
Morphology changes due to activation of megakaryocytes
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Why are x-rays more harmful towards women than men?
The radiation could damage the genetic code in ovaries
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What is the largest cell in the human body?
Ovum
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Give examples of germ cells
Spermatozoa, ova (reproduction, haploid)
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Give examples of blood cells
Erythrocytes, white cells (oxygen transport, defence, proteins bind to oxygen, proteins destroy bacteria)
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Give examples of immune cells
Lymphoid tissues, nodes and spleen (defence, recognise and destroy foreign material)
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Give examples of hormone secreting cells
Islet cells, thyroid, adrenal (indirect cell communication, secrete chemical messengers into blood)
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Describe features of a sperm cell
Smallest cell, torpedo shaped, genetic information stored in head (haploid/chromosomes), lots of mitochondria, acrosome (enzymes to penetrate egg), flagella (production - mitosis/meiosis, short cell life of 3 months, constantly produced)
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State the deformations of morphology of spermatozoa
Normal, pin-head, immature, giant head, acute tapering form, amorphous form, double tail, constricted head, double head
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How are fraternal (paternal) twins formed
Two eggs
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How are maternal (identical) twins formed
From one fertilised egg (embryo splits)
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Describe features of ovulation
Maturation of egg (limited number of ovum produced). Primordial follicle - mature ovarian follicle - ruptured follicle - ovum - ovulation (or corpus luteum - fully formed corpus - fibrous corpus alibicans)
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How is the ovum protected?
By epithelium - used to move the ovum through the fallopian tube
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What is fertilisation an example of?
Evolutionary pressures
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If it possible to have to spermatozoa fertilising the same egg?
Possible but there is a chance of a miscarriage
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Describe features of the ovum
Nucleus, cytoplasm, zona pellucida, vitelline membrane, follicile cells of corona radiata
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What is embryogenesis?
The formation and development of the embryo. Zygote, mitotic division, 2 cell zygote, monula, blastocyst, unilaminar blastocyst, implantation
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What is differentiation?
Cell becomes specialised towards final target cell (gene expression)
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What is de-differentation?
Specialised cell becomes unspecialised
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Describe the hierarchy of stem cells
Totipotent (e.g. embryo, forms different types of cells), pluripotent (forms tissues but not whole organisms), multipotent/unipotent (form cells within a type of tissue) - blood stem cells (erythrocytes or white cells), muscle/nerve/bone
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What are terminally differentiated cells?
Final cells, they don't divide, if damaged then stem cells divide/differentiate and replace cells lost or damaged
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What is haematopoesis?
The process of forming blood cells
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Describe the process of haematopoesis to form erythrocytes
Haemocytoblast (pluripotent), proerythroblast (omnipotent), basophilic erythroblast, polychromatophilic erythroblast, normoblast, reticulocyte, erythrocyte
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Describe features of erythrocytes
Nucleus expelled towards end of maturation process, more space for oxygen and Hb, bi-concave shape, larger SA
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Describe regulation of blood flow
Erythrocyte binds to oxygen and releases ATP. ATP binds to capillary and regulation of blood flow takes place due to opening/closing of Ca ion channels
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Describe features of neutrophils
Target bacteria/fungi, multi-lobed nucleus, engulfs bacteria
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Describe features of eosinophils
Released granules, large/round
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Describe features of basophils
Release histamines, interactions with macrophages
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What cells of connective tissue are basophils analogous to?
Mast cells
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Describe features of lymphocytes
B and T cells - part of immune system
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What do monocytes do?
Migrate to other tissues to become macrophages
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To what tissues would you expect monocytes to migrate to?
Infected tissue
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Describe features of macrophages
Circular in shape in quiescent state, morphology state changes when activated, engulfs pathogens
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Describe features of platelet formation
Megakaryocyte (no nucleus), lots of mitochondria (survives longer), binds to damaged area, spreads out, increases SA to cover wound, lots of projections, squamous, damaged area sealed, recruits other platelets, thrombus covers larger area
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Describe features of clot formation
Allows cells to repair underneath, platelets bind to exposed proteins (stops other proteins from binding to site of injury), platelets safely broken down
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What is the innate system (non-specific)
Neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil
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What is the active system (specific/detected by stimulus)?
Lymphocytes, B cells (produced plasma cells/antibodies/memory cells) produced in bone marrow, T cells (T killer/regulatory/helper) produced in thymus
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Card 2

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Why are x-rays more harmful towards women than men?

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The radiation could damage the genetic code in ovaries

Card 3

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What is the largest cell in the human body?

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Card 4

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Give examples of germ cells

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Card 5

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Give examples of blood cells

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