Geopolitical Interventions Examples

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Iraq (2003): Saddam Hussein background
President of Iraq between 1979 and 2003, state owned banks placed under his control, quelled Kurdish uprising with chemical attacks
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Iraq (2003): Justification for intervention
Rumours that Hussein had access to WMDs (these were never found), his security forces killed an estimated 250,000 civilians during his time in power, decision to invade Kuwait led to the Gulf War
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Iraq (2003): What form of intervention was carried out? Which countries were involved?
Iraq was subject to US and UK led direct military intervention. This included the sending of ground troops to the country and air strikes by intervening countries.
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Iraq (2003): Impacts of intervention
Military actions increased violence and instability in the country, 28% of Iraqi children are now malnourished (higher than before 2003 war), Hussein hung in 2006 for 'crimes against humanity'
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Libya (2011): Libya background
Important geopolitical position as close to Europe, 10th largest global oil reserve, ruled unchallenged by Colonel Gaddafi for 42 years
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Libya (2011): Justification for intervention
Arab Spring demonstration quelled by Gaddafi using violence, 100s of civilians killed by his forces (against the Geneva Convention)
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Libya (2011): What type of intervention was carried out? Why was intervention opposed by some governments?
Libya was subject to direct military intervention. Russia, China, Brazil and India didn't support the intervention due to concerns about a lack of evidence (may be a reflection on their own government regimes)
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Libya (2011): Post-Gaddafi Libya
Gaddafi was killed by rebel fighters in 2011. Libya is still incredibly unstable with some areas not under central government control, making them more vulnerable to terror groups (e.g. ISIS and Al Qaeda)
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Syria (2011): Civil War background
Officially began in 2011 and is ongoing. President Assad (dictator) is fighting rebel groups to maintain power. The UK, US and Turkey are backing the rebel groups.
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Syria (2011): What type of intervention is begin carried out?
The UK and other countries are using indirect military action to help try to overthrow Assad
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Syria (2011): Issues with intervention
The intervention is backing rebel groups to try to overthrow Assad, however one of the rebel group is ISIS
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Syria (2011): Arguments against intervention
The issue of national sovereignty is sometimes used as an excuse against intervention by stating that every nation has a right to govern itself. However, this can often lead to governments abusing their power.
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Ivory Coast (2011): Ivory Coast background
Country was in political crisis with many killings based on political views. Rebel groups of President Gbagbo supports would burn foreigners and political opposition alive. Gbagbo was beaten in 2011 election but refused to give up power.
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Ivory Coast (2011): Justification for intervention
Rumours that Gbagbo had access to WMDs and evidence of peaceful protests against Gbagbo being quelled with police violence. Without intervention, violence would have been likely to escalate and may have prolonged civil war.
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Ivory Coast (2011): What type of intervention was carried out? Who were the main countries and organisations involved?
Direct military action in the form of air strikes were carried out on Gbagbo's military base by UN and French forces. The bombing last just 12 days and formerly pro-Gbagbo police officers were in line with the new president within 2 months.
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Zimbabwe (2017): Zimbabwe background
Poverty and HR abuses were rife but education and healthcare improvements had been made under Mugabe's presidency. 72% of people lived below the poverty line with 82% of the governments's budget allocated to government salaries.
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Zimbabwe (2017): Prior attempts at intervention
In 2002, the EU imposed a trade embargo on Zimababwe to try to enforce greater equality. However, this was used by Mugabe as propoganda against the West by blaming their poverty on the actions of the EU.
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Zimbabwe (2017): Why was there a lack of intervention?
Zimbabwe is a former British colony so any attempt to intervene may have been seen as neo-colonialism. Mugabe was also deemed to pose not threat to world safety.
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Zimbabwe (2017): The 'non-coup coup'
In 2017, Mugabe's military turned against him after rumours began that he would pass his presidency onto his wife. There was no violence but Mugabe was forced to resign, and the situation was successfully managed without foreign intervention.
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Iraq (2003): Justification for intervention

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Rumours that Hussein had access to WMDs (these were never found), his security forces killed an estimated 250,000 civilians during his time in power, decision to invade Kuwait led to the Gulf War

Card 3

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Iraq (2003): What form of intervention was carried out? Which countries were involved?

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Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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Iraq (2003): Impacts of intervention

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Card 5

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Libya (2011): Libya background

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