Geograpy case studies + definitions unit 2, 2

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Mass movement- when material moves down a slope due to the pull of gravity, soil creep and slumping are examples of this.
Soil creep- Gravity pulls water contained in soil down a slope. Soil moves downhill with water happens v.slowly, quicker after heavy rainfall. Slumping - Large area of land moving down a slope, forms a curved surface.
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Headlands & Bays - On coastlines where rocks of varying resistance at right angles to sea. Bays are softer rock and are indentations in the land. Headlands more resistant rock + protrude into sea
As bays less res. rock erosion rates greatest at first, sea cuts them back, waves reaching coast less powerful as further so deposit sediment forming beaches. Headlands get more pow. waves so erode faster now.
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Wave cut platforms - headlands usually formed from cliffs
Sea moves against base of cliff using corrasion + hydraulic action (+ sometimes corrosion) undercutting the cliff forming a wave cut notch.Over hang above which over time falls in(pressure of weight +grav.) This continues forming a wave cut platform
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Caves arches stacks and stumps - formed in rocks that have a fault or line of weakness. Hydraulic action in this fault causes it to widen to form a cave. If the fault is in a headland, caves form both sides of it.
When the backs of the caves meet an arch is formed, the sea erodes the bottom of the arch, weathering also takes place, sea undercuts bottom of arch, collapses forming a stack, continued erosion forms a stump over time.
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Long shore drift - movement of sand and pebbles down a coast line. Direction of waves hitting the coast line determined by prevailing wind
This causes material to move along the beach. This can create landforms on a coastline such as spits and bars. In river estuaries can cause problms due to deposition of sediment, may have to be dredged frequently.
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The North Norfolk's new Shoreline management plan
over next 100 years 1,000 homes, 1400 caravan & chalet parks, 7 historic buildings, 3.5km of road will be lost to sea. Govmt save £41 million but could lose £100 million + £357 from lost tourist income.
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Happisburgh - one of the fastest eroding places in the world.
Revetments were placed in 1958 reducing the amount of erosion by 50cm a year. 1995 council stopped repairing them so 25 properties + life boat station washed away. On Beach Road, houses were £80,000 but now £1. Did defend in2007, 5000 tonnes rip rap
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Card 2

Front

As bays less res. rock erosion rates greatest at first, sea cuts them back, waves reaching coast less powerful as further so deposit sediment forming beaches. Headlands get more pow. waves so erode faster now.

Back

Headlands & Bays - On coastlines where rocks of varying resistance at right angles to sea. Bays are softer rock and are indentations in the land. Headlands more resistant rock + protrude into sea

Card 3

Front

Sea moves against base of cliff using corrasion + hydraulic action (+ sometimes corrosion) undercutting the cliff forming a wave cut notch.Over hang above which over time falls in(pressure of weight +grav.) This continues forming a wave cut platform

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

When the backs of the caves meet an arch is formed, the sea erodes the bottom of the arch, weathering also takes place, sea undercuts bottom of arch, collapses forming a stack, continued erosion forms a stump over time.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

This causes material to move along the beach. This can create landforms on a coastline such as spits and bars. In river estuaries can cause problms due to deposition of sediment, may have to be dredged frequently.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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