Geography Unit 2A.2 Key Words

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afforestation
Planting trees
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biological weathering
The action of plants and animals on the land, For example, seeds fall in cracks in rocks, as they germinate and grow the rock is broken up
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channelisation
Straightening or deepening of a river channel to stop flooding
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chemical weathering
The reaction of certain rocks with rainwater
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confluence
The point at which rivers meet
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corrosion
A chemical reaction between certain rock types and water
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deposition
The laying down of materials
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depth
How deep the water of the river is
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education
Teaching people how to cope with flooding
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embankmentts
Raised river banks
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erosion
The wearing away of materials by a moving force. For example, a river, the sea or ice
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flooding
When a river bursts its banks
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floodplain
The flat area of land that the river spills onto when it bursts its banks
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floodplain zoning
Land has different uses as you move away from the river. The least valuable and is next to the river
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flood relief channels
New channels built to hold excess water during times of flood
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flood warning systems
Sirens that are activated to warn people about a flood risk
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forecasting
Predicting what is going to happen in the future
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gradient
The degree of slope
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hard engineering
The building of river defences from materials such as concrete. They involve construction and are usually visually intrusive
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human effects
The effects on people
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hydraulic action
Pressure of the water being thrown against the banks of the river
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interlocking spur
The landform resulting from the winding path of a river in its upper course
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levee
Raised banks on the side of a river
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load
The material transported by a river
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long profile
The changes in the height of a river's cource from its source to its mouth
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meander
A bend in a river
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mouth
The end of a river where it goes into the sea
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oxbow lake
A horseshoe-shaped lake that is formed from a cut-off meander bend
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overhang
A piece of rock which juts out over a plunge pool
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physical effects
the effects on the natural world
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physical weathering
Water collects in cracks and freezes; it expands, causing rock to break up. Also called freeze-thaw
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river cliff
The steep bank on the outside of a meander
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soft engineering
Building of river defences using natural materials. They are visually attractive
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soil creep
The slowest downhill movement of soil. Gravity pulls water in the soil downhill and soil moves with the water
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source
The place where a river starts
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slumping
A large area of land moving down a slope
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terracettes
Small terraces seen on grassy slopes
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tributary
A minor river joining onto the main river
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undercutting
The process by which a cliff is undermined
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velocity
The speed of the river, usually measured in cubic metres per second (cumecs)
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volume
The amount of water in the river
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washlands
Land that is allowed to flood
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watershed
A divide between two drainage basins
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waterfall
A landform of river erosion where the river falls over a steep drop
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weathering
The breakdown of rocks by physical, chemical and biological means.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The action of plants and animals on the land, For example, seeds fall in cracks in rocks, as they germinate and grow the rock is broken up

Back

biological weathering

Card 3

Front

Straightening or deepening of a river channel to stop flooding

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The reaction of certain rocks with rainwater

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The point at which rivers meet

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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