Geography Unit 2A.1 Key Words

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arch
An opening through a rocky headland
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bar
A sand and/or shingle ridge that extends right across a bay, linking two headlands
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bay
An indentation of the coast, usually between two headlands
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beach
An accumulation of sand and shingle in coastal locations
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beach replenishment
The replacement of beach material that has been removed by the process of longshore drift
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biological weathering
The action of plants and animals on the land. For example, seeds fall in cracks in rocks, as they germinate and grow the rock is broken up
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building design
Buildings have special features to protect them from flooding
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cave
An area at the bottom of a cliff that has been hollowed out by wave action
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chemical weathering
The reaction of certain rocks with rainwater
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cliff regrading
Altering the angle of slope of a cliff to make it more stable
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coastal recession
The retreat of coastlines due to erosion
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constructive wave
A low-frequency (6-8 per minute) wave, with a low crest, which runs gently up the slope of the beach
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corrasion
Sand and pebbles carried in waves are thrown against the cliff face
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corrosion
A chemical reaction between certain rock types and the salt and other acids in seawater
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DEFRA
Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
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deposition
The laying down of materials
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destructive waves
A strong wave with a high frequency (13-15 per minute) and a high crest, which breaks so that the water crashes downwards from the wave crest and erodes the beach
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education
Teaching people how to cope with flooding
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Environment Agency
A government-funded agency responsible for several areas including pollution control, waste regulation, water resources, flood defence and inland fisheries
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erosion
The wearing away of materials by a moving force, such as a river, the sea or ice
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fetch
The distance over which the wind blows across open water
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forecasting
Predicting what is going to happen in the future
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groynes
Usually made of wood, they are built down a beach from the coast to the sea to trap sand and shingle moved by longshore drift
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hard engineering
A method of coastal management that involves major construction work using manufactures materials such as conrete
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headland
A part of the land that juts out into the sea
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human effects
The effects on people
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hydraulic action
Pressure exerted by the water which compresses air in cracks. The pressure causes small pieces of rock to break off
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longshore drift
The movement of sediment along the coast by wave action
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managed retreat
Allowing the sea to gradually flood land and erode cliffs, rather than building coastal defences
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mass movement
The movement of material down a slope as a result of the pull of gravity
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offshore reef
An artificial reef constructed of large rocks or boulders which slow the power of the waves
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overhang
A piece of rock which juts out
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physical effects
The effects on the natural world
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physical weathering
Water collects in cracks and freezes; it expands, causing rock to break up. Also called freeze-thaw
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prevailing wind
The most common wind direction
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recurved sea walls
Usually made of concrete, with a curved top to send the wave back on itself
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revetment
A wooden or metal barricade with slats that allow waves to pass through but with much less force
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rip-rap
Large rocks placed in front of the cliff to reduce the force of the waves. Sometimes called rock armour
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salt marsh
An area of low-lying land that is at times flooded by the sea
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slip plane
A boundary between two different rock types along which a rock moves when it becomes saturated
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slumping
A large area of land moving down a slope
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soft engineering
A method of coastal management that works with the natural processes and involves the use of natural materials it is visually unobtrusive
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soil creep
The slowest downhill movement of soil. Gravity pulls water in the soil downhill and soil moves with the water
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spit
A ridge of sand and/or shingle joined to the land at one end, with the other end tapering into the sea
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stack
A piece of rock which stands in the sea that was once joined to the headland
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stump
A piece of rock that used to be a stack but is now covered by water at high tide
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terracettes
Small ridges on grassy slopes caused by soil creep
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undercutting
The process by which a cliff is undermined
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wave-cut platform
An area of flat rock at the bottom of a cliff
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weathering
The breakdown of rocks by physical, chemical and biological means
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

bar

Back

A sand and/or shingle ridge that extends right across a bay, linking two headlands

Card 3

Front

bay

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

beach

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

beach replenishment

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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