geography unit 2 watery world

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How water usage is managed in HICs: Domestic- using showers instead of baths, water buts, short flush toilets, water meter, fix dripping taps etc.
Industry - Walkers Crisps - reduced use of water by 50%, saving 700 million litres of water a year. Installed 30 water meters, implemented engineering solutions such as recycling water from the starch recovery programme, educated staff on water usag
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Cadbury Trebor Bassett has been reusing waste water. Company installed on-site waste water treatment plant, costing £2million .
Been able to reduce demand for water usage at the site by 15% per year resulting in a saving in water cost of around £10,000 per annum and water usage of 17 million litres per year.
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Agricultural - flood irrigation - when a field is flooded on purpose. Overhead irrigation sprinklers - if hot, may evaporate before gets to ground.
Drip irrigation - pipe with holes where plant is, expensive but most efficient. Furrows - making rides down a field to encourage water to sink in more.
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How water is managed in LICs - Hand dug well - new technology uses trad methods with additional features to prevent going dry, pollution and disease carrying insects. All are deep enough to ensure water table is reached even in dry season.
Rainwater harvesting - Collected from cleaned roofs, runs down gutter + into storage tank, cleanest naturally occuring water supplies.
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Tube well/ bore hole - small diameter holes drilled by hand power. Built quickly + cheaply, hand pumps can be used to extract water or electrical/diesel powered ones necessary.
Gravity fed systems - In hilly areas, water piped down to communities from higher water sources through gravity fed schemes. Doesnt need pumps.
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Water conflicts - The rivers Tigris and Euphrates have their source in Turkey but flow through Syria then Iraq - politically unstable. Ataturk dam generates 8.9 billion kWh in electricity + has opened 180,000 acres of farmland to irrigation.
Turkey believes it is necessery to take most of the water. However after the GAP scheme , the waters of the Euphrates will decrease from 30 billion m3 (BCM) a year at the Syrian border to 16BCM, at the Iraui border from 16BCM to 5 BCM.
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also: some of the water used by turkey will get back into the rivers and cause problems downsteam. Water quality will decrease, increased salinity, chemicals from pesticides and fertilisers.
By the time the water reaches Iraq, it is much worse, as it is the firthest downstream, 70% of Iraq's irrigated areas suffer from salinity. Syria dams water too. Iraq in constant fear of being short of water.
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1974 Iraq put troops on Syrian border + threatened to destroy the Al-Thawra dam. During the conference in 2000 on international law on shared water resources, there was a lot of dislike towards Turkey
Since then only part of the GAP project has been completed, tensions likely to rise as more water is used by these projects.
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3 Gorges Dam is hydroelectric dam on the Yangtze river in China. Largest HEP in the world + the total energy produced will reach 22,500 mW.
Resettlement - about 1.4 million people have been forced to move as their settlements lost beneath rising waters.
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Landslides -The huge weight of the water behind the dam is causing landslides- reservoir has already collapsed in 91 places + 36km have caved in.
Environment - Caused the extinction of the Yangtze river dolphin. More than 1 billion tonnes of waste water has been released annually into the river.
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Economic growth - Allows transit of raw materials causing massive economic growth. Flood control- protect 1,500,000 hectares of farmland and 15 million people from flooding.
Power generation - produces the equivalent of 18 nuclear power stations.
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Navigation - allowed travel between different parts of river. The river transport will be improved from 10 million to 50 million tonnes per year and costs reduced by 35%
Tourism - more than 800,000 tourists have visited 3 gorges dam in 2007, many tourist sites being developed, creating many jobs
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Card 2

Front

Been able to reduce demand for water usage at the site by 15% per year resulting in a saving in water cost of around £10,000 per annum and water usage of 17 million litres per year.

Back

Cadbury Trebor Bassett has been reusing waste water. Company installed on-site waste water treatment plant, costing £2million .

Card 3

Front

Drip irrigation - pipe with holes where plant is, expensive but most efficient. Furrows - making rides down a field to encourage water to sink in more.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Rainwater harvesting - Collected from cleaned roofs, runs down gutter + into storage tank, cleanest naturally occuring water supplies.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Gravity fed systems - In hilly areas, water piped down to communities from higher water sources through gravity fed schemes. Doesnt need pumps.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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