Geography unit 1 rivers flashcards

Revison, flash cards for rivers incuding landforms and processes..

(might add some exam technique sort of qestions)*

*but you'll have to check (might not have been bothered)...

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  • Created by: richard
  • Created on: 02-05-14 14:54
This section is on rivers!
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What is a bend in a river called?
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What is the slowest part of the meander?
the inside bend
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What is the thalweg?
the line of greatest velocity
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What is a drainage basin?
A drainage basin is the area of land that is drained by a river and its tributaries
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Name an input of the hydrological cylce
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what is infiltration?
The movement of water from the ground surface into the soil
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What is percolation?
This is the deep transfer of water into permeable rocks - those with joints or those that are porous
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What is baseflow?
(Can be called groundwater flow) is the very slow transfer of water through rocks (only in limestone areas)
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What is the rivers discharge?
The volume of water passing past a certain point (expressed in cubic metres per second)
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How do you calculate discharge?
Discharge = cross sectional area x velocity
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What is a storm hydrograph?
Is a graph that shows the discharge of a river following a storm event
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Name the four types of transportaion in a river and define them.
Dissolved load- transport of chemicals dissoloved in the water. Suspension- The suspended load is fine grained sand and mud. Saltation- bouncing movement along the bed. Traction- Rolling along bed.g
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Name the types of river erosion.
Abrasion (corrasion)- Hydraulic action- Solution- Attrition
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What is Abrasion (corrasion)?
Abrasion is the scraping of load on the bed and banks, it can also be a sandpaper like effect smoothing the bed.
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When does a river deposit its load?
In times of low energy, usually on the inside of meanders, floodplains and in times of low discharge.
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What is the gradient of the river like in the upper course?
Steep, resulting in the river tumbling over rapids and waterfalls.
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Name three characteristics of a river in the upper course
v-shaped valley, low velocity, low discharge, rapids, waterfalls etc.
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How do you calculate the hydraulic radius?
cross-sectional area / wetted perimeter = hydraulic radius
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what does the hydraulic radius show?
The Hydraulic radius shows the efficiency of a channel.
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How does velocity change downstream?
Velocity and discharge both increase downstream
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How does the roughness of the rivers channel effect flow?
Roughness causes turbulent flow
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Includes oxbow lakes, levees, river braiding, floodplains, potholes, waterfalls, deltas!
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Where are pot holes found?
Most commonly found in upland areas, close to the source of the river
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How are they formed?
Rock fragments are 'drilled' into holes and cavities by turbulent flow, corrasion cause the hole to increase in size.
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What does the force of water at a waterfall form?
Plunge pool
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How is a waterfall formed?
Formed when a river flows over a relatively hard band of rock next to lots of soft rock, which forms a step when the soft rock is eroded quicker.
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How is a gorge formed?
Erosion of the underlying rock causes the waterfall to be undercut causing hte waterfall to collapse, the undercutting caries on backwards formin a gorge.
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What is the name of the 3d corkscrew flow?
Helicoidal flow
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How is an oxbow lake formed?
Meander ends start to erode towards each other, gradually the necks of the meander narrow until its broken through, deposition cuts of the meander, forming an oxbow lake.
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When does a river become braided?
A river is braided when it becomes sub-divided into many seperate channels because of deposition
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How is braiding formed?
When the river becomes overload, it deposits its load, creating small 'islands' that seperate the channel
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How is a levee formed?
When a river spills onto the floodplain, load is deposited, the heavy and larger load is deposited at the edge of the river, this happens over and over the deposited load builds up forming levees.
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What is a delta?
New land formed at the mouth of a river.
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How is a delta formed?
The loss of energy when a river enters the sea, causes vast amounts of deposition, over time the build up of this causes new land.
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Back to random river questions!
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What is river rejuvenation?
A period of erosion in which the river tries to re-establish its smooth long profile.
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What is flooding?
Flooding is where land that is not normally underwater becomes inundated.
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What is a flash flood?
Dramatic, very quick floods usually after torrential storms. Often linked with extreme rainfall events. in
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How does deforestation effect the chance of flooding?
Deforestation, increases the likely hood of flooding, becasue trees act as huge umbrellas and store alot of water.
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What is the magnitude of a flood?
The magnitude of the flood is the severity, and is linked in with frequency, the less frequent the lower the magnitude.
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What are three causes of floods?
Rock type, Steep slopes, Drainage density, snowmelt, Intense rainfall, buildings and infrastructure, deforestation, etc.
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Name three hard engineering flood managment options
Dams, river straightening, levees and embankments, diversion spillways.
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Name three soft engineering flood managment options
Planting trees, Establishing wetlands, Riverbank conservation, Land-use managment
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What is river restoration?
Is returning a river that has been altered to its natural state.
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What can flood forecasts and warning do for people?
Allows people time to prepare for floods, and tells them when they are at risk.
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What does flood watch mean?
It means that flooding of low-lying land and roads is expected, and that people should be prepared.
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state how the soft engineering technique of planting trees works?
Planting trees allows interception of precipitation and thus slows the rate at which some of the water gets to the river.
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Exam technique!
Improve your geography exam technique.
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What should you always link to a landform in an exam question?
Processes, like erosion or transportation.
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What should you do if you do not know the answet to a question?
Leave it and come back to it, if you still can't think HAVE A QUESS, never leave the answer box blank!
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What should you do on 15 mark questions?
Make sure you apply examples and name the location if necessary, use P.E.E if it helps (point, evidence (an example), explain)
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What should you do before an exam?
RELAX, chill have a coffee or something shessh
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is a bend in a river called?



Card 3


What is the slowest part of the meander?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is the thalweg?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is a drainage basin?


Preview of the front of card 5
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