Geography Theme 2 Key Ideas

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  • Created by: kitkat16
  • Created on: 03-05-14 20:01
Define weather.
Day to day changes in the atmosphere
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Define climate
Average weather conditions over a period of time
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Name three physical factors that affect climate.
Altitude, lattitude (distance from the equator), maritime/continetal
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Name the three types of rain.
Frontal, convetional, orographic
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How is frontal rain formed?
Warm air advances over cold fronts, causing the air to cool, water vapour to condense and clouds to form.
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How is convectional rain formed?
The sun heats the ground. The ground then heats the air, which rises, cools and condenses.
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How is orographic rain formed?
At a higher altitude, damp air from the sea rises up mountains, cools and condenses, resulting in cloud formation above mountains.
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What type of pressure will warm areas and cold areas experience?
Warm regions such as the equator experience low pressure. Cold regions such as the polar regions experience high pressure.
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What general conditions will you get in an anticyclone?
No cloud cover, no precipitation, settled conditions, sunny.
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How do summer anticycloes and winter anticyclones differ?
Summer anticyclone very hot, winter anticyclone very cold.
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What general conditions will you get in a depression?
Mild, much precipitation, much cloud cover, unsettled, changable conditions, windy.
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What is a biome?
A large area of the earth's surface defined by the animals and plants that inhabit it, the soil type, relief and climate.
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What is an ecosystem?
A biological comunity of plant and animal life and their surroundings.
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Why are mangrove forests important?
Natural costal defences, support a range of rare species including the howler monkey, roots trap sediment causing it to be deposited.
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Name two threats to mangrove forests.
Tourist developments- trees cut down to clear beaches for marinas and hotels. Shrimp farming- forests destroyed to make room for the ponds needed for shrimp farming.
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Name 3 management techniques for ecosystems.
Wildlife corridors- Central American rainforest. Debt for nature swaps, Costa Ricca. Ecotourism Costa Ricca.
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Name the type of bedload in the upper, middle and lower profile of a river.
UP= large boulders/bedload. MP= more rounded/smaller bedload. LP= smaller bedload.
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Name the shape of the valley in the UP, MP and LP. Why is this the case?
UP= angular v-shaped valley because of verticle erosion. MP= U-shaped valley because of lateral erosion. LP= wider U-shaped valley.
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Where does water in a river flow fastest?
The upper profile
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Name three other features of the upper profile.
Waterfalls, gorges, interlocking spurs
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Name two other features of the middle profile.
Meanders and oxbow lakes.
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Name four other feature of the lower profile.
Flood plains, flatter land, estuaries, deltas
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What is a store?
Where water is held.
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Name three stores.
Sea store, vegetation store, river channel.
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What is a flow?
The movement of water.
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Name three flows
Precipitation, river flow, evapotranspiration.
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What is the drainage basin/catchment area?
The area from which a river collects its water.
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What is the watershed?
The edge of the drainage basin.
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Name the four processes of erosion.
Abrasion, attrition, corrosion and hydraulic action.
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What is abrasion?
Material such as sand and gravel scrapes the river bed or cliffs, wearing it away.
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What is attrition?
Rocks transported in the waves/river channel knock into each other, breaking up the rocks and making them smoother/more rounded.
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What is hydraulic action?
The force of water wears away the river channel or cliffs.
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What is corrosion?
Weak acid in the water dissolves some rocks (particularly limestone) in the river channel or cliffs.
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Define deposition.
The dropping of material and sediment by a river due to lack of energy.
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Name the four processes of river transportaition.
Suspension, solution, traction and saltation.
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What is suspension?
Fine particles of sediment are carried in the river water.
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What is solution?
Materials such as calcium carbonate is dissolved in river water and transported downstream.
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What is saltation?
Stones and pebbles are bounced along the river bed.
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What is traction?
Rocks and boulders are rolled along the river bed.
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What is a delta?
Small islands that occur due to deposition when a river meets a lake or the sea.
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What are levees?
River banks that are formed naturally due to deposition in the lower coures of a river. They are excellent natural flood defences.
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What is a meander?
A bend in the river formed due to deposition and erosion.
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What is river discharge?
The flow through a river at any point.
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What is lagtime?
The difference in time between peak rainfall and peak river discharge.
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What factors affect infiltration/overland flow in the drainage basin?
Gradient of slope, permeable/impermeable rocks, urban land uses, number of trees.
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What is perculation?
The movement of water through the soil or porous rocks.
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What is hard engineering?
Using methods which try to combat/work against natural processes
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What is soft engineering?
Using methods that work with natural processes.
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Name some hard engineering techniques in managing river flooding?
Dams, embankments, flood walls, straightening or deepening the river.
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Name some soft engineering techniques in managing river flooding?
Washlands (allowing parts of the floodplain, such as sports fields, to flood), afforestation (replacing trees in the catchment area), using early warning systems.
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Describe the costal transportational process.
Longshore drift, which is the zig zag movement of sediment along the coast. The swash is the flow of water up the beach, the backwash is the diagonal flow out.
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Name some costal features of erosion.
Headland, caves, arches, stacks, stumps
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Name some costal features of deposition.
Spit, sand dunes, beaches, lagoons, tombolos.
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What is cliff slumping?
A whole segment of cliff slumps as the bottom of the cliff is undercut by wave erosion.
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Name four factors that affect the rate of cliff recession.
Length of beach, vegetation cover, type of rock of cliff (soft or hard), power of waves.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Define climate


Average weather conditions over a period of time

Card 3


Name three physical factors that affect climate.


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Name the three types of rain.


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


How is frontal rain formed?


Preview of the front of card 5
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