Geography terms

  • Created by: Katie
  • Created on: 16-03-13 17:35
Hydraulic action
pressure of water breaks rocks away from the bed and banks.
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eroded pieces of rock in water scrape and rub against the bed and banks removing material.
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eroded rocks smash into eachother and break into smaller fragments. Edges of the rocks get rounded off making the particles smaller.
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air bubbles in turbulent stretches of water implode causing shockwaves that break pieces of rock off the banks and bed
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dissolving of rock by chemical processes
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substances are dissolved in water and are carried along
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fine material is whipped up by turbulent water and carried along
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larger particles bounce along the river bed
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very large particles are pushed along the river bed by the force of the water
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Headward erosion
Makes rivers longer, Found in upper course
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Vertical erosion
Makes rivers deeper, Found in upper course
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Lateral erosion
Makes rivers wider, Found in lower course
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Precipitation lands of vegetation
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Surface runoff
Water flowing over the land
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Water dripping from one leaf to another
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Water running down a plant stem or tree trunk
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Water moving slowly downhill through soil
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Water soaking into the soil
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Water seeping down through soil
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Walls built across rivers
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Channel straightening
Meanders are removed by creating artificial cut-throughs
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Embankments built along rivers
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Constructive waves
Low frequency, low and long, deposits sediment up the beach 6-8 per minute
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Destructive waves
High and steep, higher frequency, strong backwash removes material from the beach 10-14 per minute
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Rock and sediment carried by the waves smash against rocks and cliffs, breaking bits off and smoothing surfaces
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Hydraulic action
Air in cracks in cliffs is compressed, the pressure exerted breaks off rock pieces
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Soluble rocks get gradually dissolved by seawater
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Rock smash against each other and break into smaller bits
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Hold the line
maintain existing coastal defences
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Advance the line
build new coastal defences further out to sea
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Retreat the line
move people away from the coast
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Birth rate
number of live births per 1000 people, per year
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Death rate
number of deaths per 1000 people, per year
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Fertility rate
average number of children a woman will have during fertile years
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A uniform worldwide change in sea level
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Equilibrium in the earth's crust such that the forces tending to elevate landmasses balance the forces tending to depress landmasses
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A long, narrow, deep inlet of the sea between high cliffs, as in Norway and Iceland, typically formed by submergence of a glaciated valley.
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A long narrow river inlet.
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Upper Course River Features
steep-sided V-shaped valleys, interlocking spurs, rapids, waterfalls and gorges
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Middle Course River Features
wider, shallower valleys, meanders, and oxbow lakes.
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Lower Course River Features
wide flat-bottomed valleys, floodplains and deltas.
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Oxbow Lake
A crescent-shaped lake formed when a meander of a river or stream is cut off from the main channel
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Infant Mortality Rate
number of children (out of 1000) who die before their first birthday
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Life expectancy
the average age a person can expect to live
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Migration rate
difference between number of people who migrate in and the number of those who migrate out per 1000, per year
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Dependency Ratio
young people (0-14yrs) + old people (over 65) / Working age (15-64)
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Commercial farming
production of crops/ livestock to make a profit
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Subsistence farming
just enough food grown to feed a family
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Intensive Farming (Capital Intensive)
high input of capital (money), low input of labour, use of pesticides/fertilisers/machinery
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Intensive Farming (Labour intensive)
doesnt use much capital (money) uses lots of labour
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Extensive farming
Low capital and labour input, produces less food, smaller impact of environment, better animal welfare
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Arable Farming
plants are grown for food, fuel, animal feed and materials
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Livestock farming
animals raised for food or materials (leather)
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study of the influence of such factors as geography, economics, and demography on the politics and especially the foreign policy of a state
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GM crops
crops altered by the addition of genes to give them beneficial characteristics
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Land colonisation
moving to an area of land not used before
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Land reform
land is redistributed
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change from subsistence farming to commercial farming
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Card 2




eroded pieces of rock in water scrape and rub against the bed and banks removing material.

Card 3




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Card 4




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Card 5




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