geography skills both AS and A2

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what is a pictograph?
uses an icon to represent a quantity of data values in order to decrease the size of the graph. A key must be used to explain the icon.
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what are the advantages of using a pictograph?
 Easy to read  Visually appealing  Handles large data sets easily using keyed icons
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what are the disadvantages of using a pictograph?
 Hard to quantify partial icons  Icons must be of consistent size  Best for only 2-6 categories  Very simplistic
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what is a line plot?
can be used as an initial record of discrete data values. The range determines a number line which is then plotted with X's for each data value.
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what are the advantages of using a line plot?
 Quick analysis of data  Shows range, minimum & maximum, gaps & clusters, and outliers easily  Exact values retained
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what are the disadvantages of using a line plot ?
 Not as visually appealing  Best for under 50 data values  Needs small range of data
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what is a pie chart?
chart displays data as a percentage of the whole. Each pie section should have a label and percentage. A total data number should be included.
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what are the advantages of using pie charts?
 Visually appealing  Shows percent of total for each category
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what are the disadvantages of using pie charts?
 No exact numerical data  Hard to compare 2 data sets  "Other" category can be a problem  Total unknown unless specified  Best for 3 to 7 categories  Use only with discrete data
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what is a map chart?
displays data by shading sections of a map, and must include a key. A total data number should be included.
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what is the advantage of using a map chart?
 Good visual appeal  Overall trends show well
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what is the disadvantage of using a map chart?
 Needs limited categories  No exact numerical values  Color key can skew visual interpretation
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what is a Histogram?
displays continuous data in ordered columns. Categories are of continuous measure such as time, inches, temperature, etc.
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what are the advantages of using a Histogram?
 Visually strong  Can compare to normal curve  Usually vertical axis is a frequency count of items falling into each category
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what are the disadvantages of using a histogram?
 Cannot read exact values because data is grouped into categories  More difficult to compare two data sets  Use only with continuous data
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what does a bar graph display?
displays discrete data in separate columns. A double bar graph can be used to compare two data sets. Categories are considered unordered and can be rearranged alphabetically, by size, etc.
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what are the advantages of using a bar chart?
 Visually strong  Can easily compare two or three data sets
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what are the disadvantages of using a bar chart?
 Graph categories can be reordered to emphasize certain effects  Use only with discrete data
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what does a line graph display?
plots continuous data as points and then joins them with a line. Multiple data sets can be graphed together, but a key must be used.
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what are the disadvantages of using a line graph?
 Can compare multiple continuous data sets easily  Interim data can be inferred from graph line
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what are the disadvantages of using a line graph?
 Use only with continuous data
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what does a scattergraph display?
displays the relationship between two factors of the experiment. A trend line is used to determine positive, negative, or no correlation.
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what are the advantages of using a scatter graph?
 Shows a trend in the data relationship  Retains exact data values and sample size  Shows minimum/maximum and outliers
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what are the disadvantages of using a scatter graph?
 Hard to visualize results in large data sets  Flat trend line gives inconclusive results  Data on both axes should be continuous
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what does a frequency polygon be made?
can be made from a line graph by shading in the area beneath the graph. It can be made from a histogram by joining midpoints of each column.
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what are the advantages of a frequency polygon?
 Visually appealing
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what are the disadvantages of a frequency polygon?
 Anchors at both ends may imply zero as data points  Use only with continuous data
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what does a stem leaf plot display?
record data values in rows, and can easily be made into a histogram. Large data sets can be accommodated by splitting stems.
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what are the advantages of a stem leaf plot?
 Concise representation of data  Shows range, minimum & maximum, gaps & clusters, and outliers easily  Can handle extremely large data sets
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what are the disadvantages of a stem leaf plot?
 Not visually appealing  Does not easily indicate measures of centrality for large data sets
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what is a box plot?
a concise graph showing the five point summary. Multiple box plots can be drawn side by side to compare more than one data set.
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what are the advantages of a box plot?
 Shows 5-point summary and outliers  Easily compares two or more data sets  Handles extremely large data sets easily
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what are the disadvantages of a box plot?
 Not as visually appealing as other graphs  Exact values not retained
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Card 2

Front

what are the advantages of using a pictograph?

Back

 Easy to read  Visually appealing  Handles large data sets easily using keyed icons

Card 3

Front

what are the disadvantages of using a pictograph?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what is a line plot?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what are the advantages of using a line plot?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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