geography-settlement change

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name the 6 functions of settlements(reasons why a settlement first develops in an area)
residential,Administrative,Market centres,Industrial,Tourist resorts,Strategic
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explain residential-functions of settlements
major function to give ppl place to live.found close to larger towns/cities where the inhabitants work. also another function-provides for retired people.eg:settlements on south coast of england,like eastbourne.
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explain administrative-functions of settlements
main function of many settlements-administrative centre. often county towns that employ large amount of people as civil servants+are centres of local government
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explain market centres-functions of settlements
market centres main function-provide services for local area. found in fertile farming areas+in past farmers would brought their produce to sell in town.Settlements-good transport links.Market centre-contained many services+a market place where week
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explain industrial-functions of settlements
main function-provide jobs in secondary industry. located on coalfields+had good access to railways+canals for transport. many found on coalfields in north staffordshire.(kids grove near Birmingham)
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explain tourist resorts-functions of settlements
some developed-coastal locations in settlements like Brighton(south coast)+Blackpool(nw coast).developed to Provide population who want place to visit for recreational purposes by the sea.Others grew around spa towns like Bath.National parks develop
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explain strategic-functions of settlements
strategic settlements built in locations that used physical geography to protect them from attack-on top of hills for defence purposes+on island in a river.
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explain how the small settlement Aberfan in South Wales has seen its function change over time
agricultural settlement grew in bottom of valley close to River Taff-5miles from Merthyr. M Vale coal mine-opened 1875.changed main function of village to industrial settlement. still farm workers tho. 1989-coal mine closed+became residential settlem
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what is counter urbanisation?
the movement out of cities to rural areas or smaller urban settlements.This process has been happening in HICs for the last 50yrs.
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describe the environmental changes to rural areas due to counter-urbanisation
many of the migrants still work in urban areas-causing pollution.Villages become ghost towns during the day.Old derelict farm buildings are turned into habitable dwellings-adds to the aesthetic value+community well being.
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describe the social changes to rural areas due to counter-urbanisation
traditions of village not valued by the newcomers. Many church parishes been amalgamated as newcomers don't go to church.local schools-increase in pupils so able to stay open
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describe the economic changes to rural areas due to counter-urbanisation
house prices may rise bc demand increases.-local ppl may not afford to buy house+have to move from local area.Many migrants don't support local businesses+do shopping in urban areas where they work.Some local services supported-public houses
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describe the demographic changes to rural areas due to counter-urbanisation
people who tend to move to rural areas are the more affluent.Either have young family or are retired.
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explain the counter urbanisation in Austrey in Warwickshire
ppl moved out of birmingham+local town Tamworth into this village-1970s.caused growth of population from 300(1961) to 1000(2001).enivronment changed-new housing estates like St Nicholas Close+Elms Drive on previous farmsteads.Used to be 18 farms in v
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describe the demographic changes due to depopulation of remote rural areas
has been decline in population for age bands up to 40 in all remote rural areas. Young adults leave area which means fewer children.Population develops an older structure.
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describe the economic changes due to depopulation of remote rural areas
as population becomes older-less money going into running of public services such as waste treatment+water.can cause problems for local councils.economy of area decreases bc less money going into economy bc fewer people of working age live there.
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describe the environment changes due to depopulation of remote rural areas
signs of neglect and derlict buildings which can be unappealing in these areas. the decrease in population is a bonus for the wildlife of area.
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describe the social changes due to depopulation of remote rural areas
the population who stay have seen decline in service provision.2001-600,000 living in remote rural areas,45% of these didn't live within 4km of a doctors surgery or post office+didn't have bus service.Post offices closing in rural areas in uk bc not
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name the two trends responsible for the change in land use in urban areas in the UK
an increased demand for housing by the Uk population. Deindustrialisation-manufacteuring has moved from urban areas in the UK to LICs where production costs are much lower.
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list the social reasons for the increase in the demand for housing
people marrying later in life(average age gone from 24 to 30 in 2010).People having fewer children later in life-impacted type of houses demanded-more flats built.Rise in divorces means family not living as group.People live alone or with partner un
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list the economic reasons for the increase in the demand for housing
population is wealthier,so young ppl can afford to rent flats when younger+dont have to live with parents.Until lately ppl were encouraged to buy own bc 100% mortgages available
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list the political reasons for the increase in the demand for housing
population of the uk is increasing.Predicted to rise by 2.1 between 2001 and 2021. Government promised 3m new home built by 2020.growth take place in certain areas of uk.one of developments in SE is in Bracknell.Been large influx of EU nationals sin
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what is a brownfield site?
an area within a city,which is no longer used. it may contain old factories and housing,or it may have been cleared ready for redevelopment.
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what is a greenfield site?
an area on the edge of the city,which has never been developed in any way.
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what are the advantages of brownfield sites?
planning permission is easier to get bc government encouraging use.Infrastructure like gas,electricity+water is already present.Sites easier to market bc of access to entertainment etc.No building on GS so lessens urban sprawl.
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what are the disadvantages of brownfield sites?
environmental survey needed bc of past usage is costly+time consuming.BS-have to be cleared+smetimes decontaminated-adds to costs. Cities may have social probe-make marketing more difficult.land costs higher bc closer to city centre.
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what are the advantages of greenfield sites?
cheaper land bc further from city centre.Space for car parking+landscaping to improve working environment.Unoccupied so developers can build as they wish.Lower construction costs bc nothing to knock down or renew.Acces to development easier bc roa
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what are the disadvantages of greenfield sites?
infrastructure like gas won't be present.Urban sprawls uses up green spaces on edge of urban areas.More difficult to get planning permission bc government mostly against it. Building could disturb wildlife+natural habitats. Living on edge of city may
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define the term redevelopment
when buildings in a city which are no longer of use are demolished and replaced with buildings that are in current demand
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define the term renewal
when old buildings are renovated and brought up to date,combining the best of the old with the new.
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name the two main reasons for the rapid growth of urban areas in LICs
the migration from rural to urban areas+a high natural increase in population in urban areas.
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why is there a migration from rural areas to urban areas?
salaries lower in RA.Lack of jobs in RA bc of population growth+mechanisation.The % of better life,including education.Development of TNCs+other industry providing jobs in urban areas.
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why is there a high natural increase in population in urban areas?
higher life expectancy bc of better living conditions+diet.Lack of contraception or knowledge about it.Better medical facilities there,infant mortality lower there.Youth of migrants-many of child-bearing age.
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name the consequences of the need for more housing and industrialisation-urban sprawl and green field sites
bracknell in berkshire-example of place with new housing development on gs to west of town. development includes-14,000 new homes,91 acres of country parkland,doctors surgery,2 primary schools.
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name the consequences of the need for more housing and industrialisation-redevelopment of old office+industrial premises
manufacturing industry-moving to LICS where production costs lower-led to new buildings being left derelict.
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name the consequences of the need for more housing and industrialisation-redevelopment of old office+industrial premises:example.
large site in Norwich comprising 17 hectare-located SE of norwich centre on banks on River Wensum-close to railway station. Site redeveloped into entertainment complex(14 screen cinema,large shopping centre,200+ residential units).
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name the consequences of the need for more housing and industrialisation-development of gated suburbs
GS is the concept which originated in countries like south africa to protect residents.Number of housing developments e.g. in SE and NW now have gates to protect them from perceived threats e.g. burglars.
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what are attitudes of central government to development?
housing minister:'due to increase in pop we have put policies in place to cope with the increased demand 4 housing.there will be growth in certain areas of the SE such as Ashford in Kent.shadow housing minister:
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what are attitudes of local government to development?
Bracknell forest councillor:'we were very sorry to lose the greenbelt land at peacocks farm but new developments is good for the town, bringing in more ppl and businesses' green party member of bRACKNELL FOREST COUNCIL:
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what are attitudes of individuals to development?
bracknell resident:new apartments are stylish+made that area of the town look more up to date'Norwich resident:redev near Carrow Rd-improved norwich.entertainment facilities+riverside is gr8 in summer for walk along new paths.
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what are the attitudes of organisations to development?
peacocks farm resident:new estate v convenient for the m4.i
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name the effects of rapid growth on an LIC urban area- Cairo
air pollution, land pollution, housing problems, noise pollution, water pollution+problems
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name the effects of rapid growth on Cairo-land pollution
inhabitants of Cairo-produce 10,000 tonnes of solid waste a day.60% collected,rest rot in streets.hazardous waste from industry also.
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name the effects of rapid growth on Cairo-water pollution and problems
23% of population don't have access to a fresh water supply.25%-not connected to the public sewage system
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name the effects of rapid growth on Cairo-air pollution
air p from 2m cars+200,000 motorbikes.37%-lung problems in industrial quarter shoubra-al-kheima.Sun rays blocked by smog on polluted days-children suffer from a deficiency of vitamin d.
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name the effects of rapid growth on Cairo-housing problems
60%-live in shanty type dwellings e.g. the city of the dead(eastern cairo-where ppl live+work among dead ancestors).Government built cities on edge of cairo in desert but many residents want to stay in city for their jobs.
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Card 2

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explain residential-functions of settlements

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major function to give ppl place to live.found close to larger towns/cities where the inhabitants work. also another function-provides for retired people.eg:settlements on south coast of england,like eastbourne.

Card 3

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explain administrative-functions of settlements

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Card 4

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explain market centres-functions of settlements

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Card 5

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explain industrial-functions of settlements

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