Geography - river landscapes

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what is the mouth
where a river meets the sea
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what is the source
the start of a river
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what is a tributary
a stream that joins a larger river
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what is a watershed
the boundary of a river basin
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what is the confluence
the point where two rivers meet
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what is mass movement
material moves down a slope pulled down by gravity
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what is weathering
ways that rocks are broken down in situ
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what is deposition
when a river drops some of the sediment that it is carrying
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what have hydraulic action,corrosion and corrosion all got in common?
all are ways in which the river erodes its bed and banks
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name to two types of mass movement
soil creep and slumping
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explain the mass movement soil creep
slowest downhill movement,gravity pulls water in the soil downhill,soil particles move with the water
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explain the mass movement slumping
this happens on river banks,parts of the bank slips into the river,dry weather makes the clay contract and crack,when it rains water gets into cracks and is absorbed which makes the rock heavy
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physical causes of a river flooding
steep sloped valleys,saturated ground,heavy snowfall then sudden rise in temp-rapid thaw happen,if area formed from impermeable rocks
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name the things that can change when a river is moving from source to mouth in terms of characteristics
mouth,depth,velocity,discharge,gradient
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explain the change of width in a river
river becomes wider as the amount of water grows due to joining tributaries
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explain the change in depth of a river
river becomes deeper as amount of water grows due to joining tributaries as move towards the sea
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explain the change in velocity in a river
speed increases as gets closer to the sea bc less water is in contact meaning less friction
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explain the change in discharge in a river
discharge increases as gets closer to sea bc of increased volume bc of joint tributaries
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explain the change in gradient in a river
slop becomes less steep as river moves out of hills and into flatter areas
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what is discharge?
the volume(amount of water) times the velocity of the river
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how is a waterfall formed?
river bed has a layer of harder rock overlying the softer rocks.As water falls the softer rock is eroded more quickly than harder rock; therefore undercutting the harder rock. The hard, overrhanging rock then collapses.The collapsed rocks fall into t
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how are interlocking spurs formed?
as river erodes landscape in upper course,there are barriers of hard resistant rock, which the river cannot easily erode. the river weaves its way around them.these called interlocking spurs
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how are meander bends formed?
As the river erodes laterally, to the right side then the left side, it forms large bends, and then horseshoe-like loops called meanders. The formation of meanders is due to both deposition and erosion and meanders gradually migrate downstream.
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how are ox-bow lakes formed?
Over time the horseshoe become tighter, until the ends become very close together. As the river breaks through, eg during a flood when the river has a higher discharge and more energy, and the ends join, the loop is cut-off from the main channel.
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what is a floodplain?
area of flat land on either side of the river,when there is too much water in the river,this area all flood as the water moves out of river channel onto land that surrounds
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what is a levee?
a high bank at side of a river which is built up during times of flood,each time a river floods it deposits sediment on its banks bc of change in speed
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what are the human causes of river flooding?
if vegetation is removed from slopes water moves to river quicker.dam could burst-more water in river channel-land close to river flood.urban area built there is tarmac,so rain water runs into drains allows water to run into river quicker. farmers up
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explain the effects of river flooding on people and the environment
Bulgaria in 2006 – 2 million people were affected by the flood as their homes were destroyed. Large areas of farmland were destroyed leaving food shortages. Mexico in 2007 – 2.1 million people were affected by the flood. Seventy per cent of the state
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explain the prediction and prevention of the effects of river flooding-education
governments give advice on how to protect homes from floods via internet. Environment agency websites gives info on likelihood of a flood.
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explain the prediction and prevention of the effects of river flooding-forecasting
met office-predicts the likelihood of a flood on tv,radio,and internet. householders-advised to ring a flood hotline,go onto environment agency website to check for likelihood of flood
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explain the prediction and prevention of the effects of river flooding-planning
flood risk assessment carried out in certain areas before planning permission. new law passed in 2010 which needs all new housing in flood risk areas to be resistant to flooding.
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explain the prediction and prevention of the effects of river flooding-building design
electricity sockets are placed half way up the walls,doors are lightweight and can be moved upstairs.concrete floors laid instead of wooden-dont rot if wet
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name the hard engineering techniques used to control rivers in UK
flood relief channels,embankments,channelisation,dams
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adv and disadv of flood relief channels
adv:very effective,should last for many years. disadv;extremely expensive
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adv and disadv of embankments
Raised banks along the sides of a river. adv:can be used as pedestrian paths beside the river. disadv;often not built high enough
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adv and disadv of channelisation
river channel widened or deepened allowing it to carry more water. adv;long lasting. disadv;unnatural and visually intrusive
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adv and disadv of dams
built along course of river to order amount of discharge. adv'water stored behind dam-used to generate hydroelectric power. disadv;sediment trapped behind dam often-leading to erosion further downstream
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name the soft engineering techniques used to control rivers in UK
floodplain zoning,wash lands,warning systems,afforestation
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adv and disadv of floodplain zoning
control urban development close to or on the floodplain. adv'no building on floodplain-less surface run-off. disadv;enforcing planning regulations may be harder in LICS
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adv and disadv of wash lands
river allowed to flood naturally in wasteland areas. adv'provides potential wetlands for birds+plants. disadv;productive land can be turned into marshland.
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adv and disadv of warning systems
a network of sirens give people early warning of possible flooding. adv'cheap. disadv;sirens can be vandalised
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adv and disadv of afforestation
trees planted in catchment area of river to slow down flow of water to a the river. adv;relatively cheap. disadv;can make soil acidic depending upon tree chosen
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describe and explain how the River Nene has been managed in the Northampton area
2002-level of land at Weedon raised by 1m by building an embankment across river valley.Water stored behind embankment when flood. 2003-flood warning system improved. residents in Far Cotton area given 2 hours notice of flood. 2007-washland created i
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Card 2

Front

what is the source

Back

the start of a river

Card 3

Front

what is a tributary

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what is a watershed

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what is the confluence

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