Geography Revision

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Crust
outer layer of the earth
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Plate
Section of the earths crust
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plate margin
boundary where two plates meet
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Mantle
Dense soild layer between the outer core and the crust
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Convertion Current
Circular currents of heat in the mantle
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Subduction
sinking of oceanic crust at a destructive plate margin
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Collision
meeting of two plates of continetal crust, both the same type so they meet head on and buckle
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fold mountains
large mountain ranges where rock layers have been crumpled as they have been forced together
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Ocean trenches
deep sections of the ocean usually where an oceanic plate is sinking below a contiental plate.
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Composite volcano
a steep-sided volcano that is made up of a variety of materials, such as lava and ash
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Shield volcanoes
broad volcano that is mostly made up of lava
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subsistence
: farming to provide food and other resources for the farmer's own family
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Terraces
steps cut into hillsides to create areas of flat land
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Hydroelectric power
the use of flowing water to turn turbines to generate electricity
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Natural hazard
occurence over which people have little control, pose threats to peoples living possesions.
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Primary Effects
immediate effects of the eruption caused directly by it
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secondary effects
after effects that occur as an indirect effect of the eruption.
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immediate responses
how people react as the diaster happens
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Long-term responses
: later reactions that occur in the weeks, months and years after the event
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Vent
the opening - usually central and single - in a volcano from which magma is emitted
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Lahar
secondary effects of a volcanic eruption are mudflows resulting from ash mixing with melting ice or water
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Supervolcano
mega colossal volcano that erupts at least 1,000km cubed of ash
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caldera
depression of the supervolcano marking the collapsed magma chamber
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Geothermal
water that is heated beneath the ground, which comes to the surface in a variety of ways
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hot spot
section of the earth's crust where plumes of magma rise, weakening the crust, These are away from plate boundaries
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focus
point in the earth's crust where the earthquake originates
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richter scale
logarithmic scale used for measuring earthquakes, based on scientific recordings of the amount of movement
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Epicentre
point at the earth's surface directly above the focus
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Shock waves
seismic waves generated by an earthquake that pass through the earth's crust
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Prediction
attempts to forecast an event - where and when it will happen - based upon current knowledge
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protection
attempts to forecast an event - where and when it will happen - based upon current knowledge
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Preparation
organising activities and drills so that people know what to do in the event of an earthquake
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Tsunami
special type of wave where the entire depth of the sea or ocean is set in motion by an event, often an earthquake, which displaces the water above it and creates a huge wave
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Section of the earths crust

Back

Plate

Card 3

Front

boundary where two plates meet

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Dense soild layer between the outer core and the crust

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Circular currents of heat in the mantle

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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