Geography - part of the coastal zone

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Air mass
A large body of air that has a similar temperature, pressure and poisture properties
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Carbon credits
A means of trading carbon between organiations or countries in order to meet an overall target
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Conjestion charging
Charging vehicals to enter cities, with the aim of reducing the presence of cars in large cities e.g. London
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An area in low atmospheric pressure, in it's development a depression usually has the following phases: a wave depression forms, mature depressions have will developed warm sectors, an occluded depression where it develops an occluded front
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Eye and eye wall
the centre of a hurrican/the area of cloud either side of the eye where the wind speeds are high and heavy rainfalls
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Water that has condensed close to the ground to form a dense low cloud with poor visability
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Frozen water resulting from the temperature of the ground or the air dropping to a temperature of bellow 0 degrees
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A line of equal or constant pressure meausred in millibars (mb)
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Energy from the sun used to heat up the earths surface
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Kyoto protocol
An international agreement aimed at reducing carbon emmisions from industrialised countries
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Occluded front
A front that is formed as a cold front over takes a warm front and lifts the warm air completely of the ground
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Rain shadow
The dry region on the leeward side of a mountain (the side sheltered from the wind)
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Individual and local responses to global warming
Low energy light bulbs, inslating lofts, wearing extra jumpers, using public transport, recycling, buy organic food, paying carbon offset when travelling, promote recycling and public transport
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National responses to global warming
Congesion charging in cities, MOT tests on vehical exhausts, higher road taxes for 'gas guzzling' vehicals, power stations fitteed with filters, they want to reduce Co2 emissions by 60% by 2050, government is encouraging conservation
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International ressponses to global warming
16th Februrary 2005 the Koyoto protocol became and international law that states: 37 industrial countries have signed to reduce their carbon emmisions by 5.2% below thei 1990 levels by 2012, carbon credits are used to trade carbon between countries
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characteristics of an anticyclone
high pressure, gental winds(isobars are far apart), no clouds, no rain, cooler at night as no clouds to trap the heat, sunny, warm, front on winter mornings, dew on summer mornings
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why is there frost during a winter anticyclone
no clouds so the heat escapes at night and the groud freezes
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Why is there due during a summer anticyclone
No clouds so heat escapes at night and the ground gets cold, causes condensation at ground level
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Direction of a depression
Anticlockwise direction = NW - SW - SE
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In a depression wy are there clouds at the warm and cold front
The cold air meets the warm air which causes it to condense into clouds
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Why is there rain at teh warm front in a depression
The warm air is rising over the cold air which causes it to condense and form clouds, these stratus clouds then give you rain
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Why is there heavy rain and thunder storms at the cold front in a depression
The cold air undercuts the air which forces the warm air steeply upwards which condenses and forms steep cumulimbus clouds which give heavy rain and thunder storms
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What is the weather like in the warm sector in a depression
The air is lifting off the gound to give a lower pressure this also makes it slightly warmer but there is still clouds and little sun
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Disintergration or decay of rocks in their origional plate or close to the ground suface. Caused by elements of the weathering such as rainfall and changes in temperature
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Mechanical weathering
Also known as physical weathering, involves the disintergration of rockss without any chemical changes, results in piles of angular rock fragments called scree
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Chemical weathering
Rain water becomes acidic and can dissolve rocks
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Biological weathering
Plants or rocks grow and expand in cracks of rocks
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Freeze thaw weathering
Water gets collected in the cracks of rocks, if the temperature then drops the water will turn to ice expanding the rock, the ice will turn to water and the process will continue until the fragment breaks off, the fragment will be deposited as scree
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Exfoliation weathering
The sun heats a rock causing it to expand, as the cotinues to happen the rock will start to disintergrate and will crumble forming layers
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Material at teh bottom of a slope (cliff foot)
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Cliff foot
Bottom of a cliff
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Cliff face
Top of a cliff
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Fragment of rock break away from the cliff face, often due to freeze thaw weathering
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Blocks of rock slide down a rock, this forms beddings of rock down the hill
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Saturated soil and weak rock flows down a slope, the shape that is created is called a lobe (as it looks like an ear lobe)
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Rotational slip
Slumps of saturated soil and weak rock along a curved surface, at teh top it is called the head, in the middle it is called the foot and at the very bottom it is called the toe
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How are waves formed
Winds blowing over the sea, friction with the surface of the water causes ripples to form and these develop into waves. The stratch of open water over which the wind blows is called the fetch
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Why are smaller pebbles closer to the sea than big pebbles
The smaller pebbles can be carried by the waves/water down to to shore whereas the big pebbles are to heavy to be carried by the water
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Longshore drift
The transport of sediment along a stretch of coastline caused by waves approaching the beach at an angle (prevailig winds are the most common direction) and go back to sea at a 90 degree angle to the sea
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Waves approaching the coast
As the circular motion of the waves reach teh shore, the sea bed interups the motion. This causes the crest of the wave to rise up + crash onto the beach, the water rushes up on the shore at an angle (swash) and goes back at a right angle(backwash)
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Destructive waves (plunging waves)
Formed by local storms by the coast, they destroy teh beach. The waves closely spaced and often interfere with eachother, producing chaotic, swirling mass of water. They rear up to form massive waves before crashing on the beach, litlle backwash
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Constructive wave (spilling waves)
They surge up the beach with a powerful swash, they carry large amounts of sediment and 'construct' the beach making it more extensive. They are formed by distant stroms which can be hundreds of kilometers away
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Mass movement
Movement of material down a slope under the influence of gravity
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Example of an eroded cliff
Bawdsey, Essex
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What are beaches made of
Eroded cliff that have been broken of
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Types of coastal erosion
Corasion/abrastion, attrition, solution/corrosion
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Eroded particles in the water scrape and rub against rock, removing small particles
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Eroded particles in the water smash into eachother and break into smaller fregments, their edges also get rounded off as they rub together
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Weak carbonic acid in the sea water dissolves rock like chalk and limestone
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Processes of coastal transportation
Saltation, traction, suspension, solution
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Large particles like boulders are pushed along the sea bed by the force of the water
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Pebble sized particles are bounced along the sea bed by the force of the water
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Small particles like silt and clay are carried along in the water
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This is less resistant material that is dissolved easily by hydraulic action, solution, abrasion and attrition. E.g. clay
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More resistand material that can resist hydraulic action, abrasion, solution and attrition by can be dissolved very slowly. E.g. Sandstone/chalk
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Sub aerial weathering
Anything from above damaging a cliff (wind, rain, sun)
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Marine Processes
Attacing rock at the cliff foot (hydraulic action, attrition, solution and abrasion)
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Cliff erosion
Weather weakens the top of the cliff (marine processes),the sea attacks the cliff foot forming a wave-cut notch,the notch increases in size causing the cliff to collapse,the backwash carries the rubble towards the sea forming a wave-cut platform
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Caves form when...
Caves occur when waves force their way into cracks in the cliff face, the water contains sand and other materials that grind away at the rock until the cracks become a cave. Hydraulic action is the main process
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If a cave is formed at a headland...
It may eventually break through to the other side forming an arch
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When an arch becomes bigger and can no longer support the arch...
it will collapse and it leaves the headland on one side and a stack (a tall column of rock) on the other
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A stack will be attacted by the marine process until...
It weakens the structure and it will eventually collapse to form a stump
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Why does a wave cut platform not errode
Because it is under the sea
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Card 2


Carbon credits


A means of trading carbon between organiations or countries in order to meet an overall target

Card 3


Conjestion charging


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Card 4




Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Eye and eye wall


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