Geography - Natural Hazards.

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Give some examples of primary hazards of a volcano.
Lava Flow, Pyroclastic Flow, Ash Fall, Volcanic Gases.
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Give some examples of secondary hazards of a volcano.
Lahars, Volcanic Landslides, Tsunamis, Jokulhaups, Climate Change.
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Give some examples of primary hazards of earthquakes.
Ground Shaking/Movement, Destruction of buildings/bridges/roads, Injury/Death.
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Give some examples of secondary hazards of earthquakes.
Electricity/Gas/Water Supplies Damaged, Soil Liquefaction, Landslides rock/soil/snow, Tsunamis, Difficult Access, Fires, Homelessness, Disease (lack of clean water&food).
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Give some examples of long-term effects common to both earthquakes and volcanoes.
Homelessness - waiting for homes to be rebuilt, Unemployment - offices/factories destroyed, Economic Damage - government have to spend billions on reconstruction, Psychological/Emotional Damage.
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Give the name of the case study of Volcanoes.
The Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat.
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Give some examples of signs of an eruption.
Increased seismicity - frequent earthquakes, Erosion of volcanic deposits, Ground Deformation - changes in shape, Sulphur Dioxide and Carbon Dioxide Released, Increased heat given out.
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What does ground deformation indicate?
Magma is rising through the vents.
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What does increased seismicity - frequent earthquakes prove?
Pressure is increasing within the volcano.
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What does increased release of heat indicate?
Hot magma is rising and coming close to the surface.
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What does increased rock fall indicate?
That the dome of the volcano is expanding which causes movement.
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What do increased gases indicate?
The magma is getting closer to the surface.
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How can the risks of volcanoes be reduced? Short-term measures.
Spraying lava with water, emergency supplies, temporary camps, earth barriers to channel direction of lava flow, dropping concrete blocks via helicopter to divert flow, assistance from other nations, rubble search, evacuation, ariel bombing lava tube
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How can the risks of volcanoes be reduced? Long-term measures.
Controls on new building and development, monitoring and prediction, preparing people - drills, tsunami early warning system, training emergency services, evacuation of an area in severe cases.
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How can the risks of earthquakes be reduced? Short-term measures.
Emergency supplies, temporary camps, assistance from other nations, rubbles searching, heavy earth-moving equipment, evacuation.
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How can the risks of earthquakes be reduced? Long-term measures.
Controls on new building and development, monitoring and prediction, aseismic design of new buildings, tsunami early warning system, training emergency services, prepare people -drills, evacuation in severe cases.
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Why do people continue to live in hazardous areas?
Tourism, Employment, No Choice, Geothermal Energy, Beauty, Rich in Minerals/Fertile Soils.
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Advantages and Disadvantages of Seismic Monitoring and what is used?
Use Seismic Graphs, AD - record even the smallest tremors. DIS something other than an earthquake may trigger the graph due to its sensitivity.
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Advantages and Disadvantages of Deformation monitoring and what is used?
GPS Satellites, laser beams, tilt-metres used, AD record the exact position even the smallest change of shape. DIS tilt-metres only really record large-scale movement.
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Advantages and Disadvantages of Gas Reading Monitoring.
AD - recorded regularly from different locations of volcano. DIS can be dangerous working on slopes.
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Advantages and Disadvantages of visual monitoring and what is used?
Used - Remote Cameras take regular photos, RADAR and remote satellites, MVO-ariel cameras. AD provide quality images regardless of weather conditions. DIS - expensive.
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What is the earthquake case study?
Sichuan Earthquake, China 2008.
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What is corruption?
When charities and organisations raise money for an affected areas economic situation. But the money is handed to the wrong people who keep the money and avoid helping those in need.
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What is aid and relief?
Contries come together to help the damaged people. They aid them with medical care, water, food, shelter etc to provide them with a better chance of survival.
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Why do MEDC's have an advantage compared to LEDC's during a natural disaster?
more money, better alarm system, better medical services, better building structures, trained services, prepared people, good communication, quick reconstruction.
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What is a constructive plate margin?
When two plates move away from each other, the crust is weakened, magma rises causing less violent volcanoes and earthquakes. As the crust moves apart , new crust is created.
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Which landforms are caused by constructive plate boundaries?
Oceanic ridges, rift-valleys, shield volcanoes and cinder cones.
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What is an oceanic ridge and give an example of one.
Example - Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Under the sea, the continuous action of plates pulling apart and forming new crust results in a clearly defined oceanic ridge.
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What is a Rift-Valley and give an example of one.
Example - Thingvellir. A giant fissure in the Earth's surface opens. As it widens, the land at the centre sinks forming a rift valley.
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What is a shield volcano and give an example of one.
Example - Skjidioreidur, Iceland. A low broad appearance similar to a warrior's shield volcano.
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What is a cinder cone and give an example of one.
Example - Mount Krafta. When ash is released from volcanoes, it builds up around the vents forming a steep, rounded hill known as a cinder cone.
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What is a collision margin?
When two plates collide and are forced upwards. No volcanoes, some earthquakes.
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What is a conservative margin?
When one plate is moving slightly slower than another scraping against each other. Nothing is created nor destroyed. No volcanoes, some earthquakes.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Give some examples of secondary hazards of a volcano.

Back

Lahars, Volcanic Landslides, Tsunamis, Jokulhaups, Climate Change.

Card 3

Front

Give some examples of primary hazards of earthquakes.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Give some examples of secondary hazards of earthquakes.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Give some examples of long-term effects common to both earthquakes and volcanoes.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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