Geography Keywords

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World At Risk
World At Risk
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Environmental Refugees
Are people forced to migrate as a result of changes to the environment.
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Greenhouse Gases
Are those gases which are said to retain heat within the Earth's atmosphere and contribute to global warming
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A Natural Hazard
Is a natural event/process which affects people
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Hazard Vulnerability
Is the capacity of a person or group to anticipate, cope with, resist and recover from the impact of a natural hazard.
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Thermohaline Circulation
Is the flow of warm and cold water that circulates around the world's oceans.
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Albedo
Is the amount of solar radiation reflected by the Earth's surface.
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Mitigation of Global Warming
Refers to policies which are meant to delay reduce or prevent climate changes caused by global warming e.g. cutting CO2 emissions
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Adaptation to Global Warming
Refers to polices which are designed to reduce the existing impacts ig global warming e.g. protecting against flooding
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Tipping Point
A point beyond which the Earth cannot recover from the effects of carbon emissions, even with drastic action.
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Carbon Sequestration
Is where natural processes, such as plant respiration, are used to offset carbon emissions.
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Boreal Forest
Evergreen forests which occur naturally between 55 and 66 degrees North where winters are long ans very cold.
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Carbon Credits
A way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in industry by putting a value and a limit on a company's shortfall and they can be brought if exceeds limits.
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Carbon Offsetting
The act of migrating greenhouse gas emissions.
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Carbon Sinks
Reservoirs of carbon dioxide.
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Deep Sea Core Sample
A cylindrical section of the Earth's crust removed from the ocean floor, these tell us about the Earth's geologic history
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Destructive Boundary
Where 2 tectonic plates meet and the denser plate is being destroyed by diving under the less dense plate and is being converted to magma.
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Disaster
When a natural hazard has a serious effect on life.
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Enhanced Greenhouse Effect
The increase in the natural greenhouse effect causing climate change due to increased greenhouse gas emissions from humans.
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Exponential
A rate of increase which becomes faster and faster.
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Geomorphological
The natural cycle and history of landforms and they processes which create them.
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Global Conveyor Belt
Another term for Thermochemical Circulation
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Greenhouse Effect
The warming of the atmosphere as some of its gases absorb the heat given out by the Earth.
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IPCC
Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change
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Lahars
A flow of volcanic debris, either dry or mixed with water as mud flows
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Magma Chamber
A large underground pool of molten rock lying under the surface of the Earth's crustt
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Mega-delta
Where the mouths of several large rivers emerge close together, e.g. the bay of bangal
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Milankovitch Cycle
Three interacting astronomical cycles in the Earth's orbit around the Sun,believed to affect long-term climate change
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Multiple Hazard
Where a region suffers from a number of different natural or man-made hazards which make life different for people living there.
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North Atlantic Drift
A warm ocean current, driven by prevailing south-westerly winds from Florida to north-west Europe, bringing warmer conditions than would otherwise be expected at those latitudes.
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Permafrost
Areas of rock and soil where temperatures have been below freezing point for at least two years
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Positive Ice-Albedo Effect
When melting snow exposes more dark ground of lower albedo which in turn causes more snow to melt
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Pyroclastic Flows
A dense cloud of lava fragments thrown out by an erupting volcano as result of bursting gas bubbles within the magma
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Radiation
Energy travelling in the form of electromagnetic waves
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Saline
Salty
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Scenario
A description of how things might happen in the future.
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Subducted
The transformation into magma as a dense plate dives under a less dense plate at a destructive plate boundary.
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Tectonic
To do with the the processes acting to shape the Earth's crust.
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Tree Line
The line beyond which tree's will not grow.
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Tundra
The barren plains of northern Canada, Alaska and Siberia where both temperature and rainfall are low.
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Vent
The opening in the crust through which volcanic material flows.
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Volcanic Emissions
The materials given out when a volcanic erupts including gases, lava and ash
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Vulnerable Population
Weak and easier hurt - don't have the means to cope with the impact of a hazard.
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Going Global
Going Global
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New Economy
Where companies and countries are based more on creativity, in finance, media and management, rather than on the production of goods.
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Just-in-time
Where companies demand goods from suppliers on short timescales, rather than producing and holding large volumes of stock themselves.
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Connections
Are how places and people are linked together, e.g. By trade, by transport and information links, and by political control.
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Disconnected
In this context means that some countries become less influential and less involved in economic decisionmaking
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Modernisation Theory
Is the means by which the world would become more economically uniform, using Western investment aimed at reducing poverty.
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Gross National Product (GNP)
Is the value of all goods and services earned by a country, including companies working abroad.
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Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
Is the same as GNP but excludes foreign earnings.
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GDP Per Capita
Statistics provide an average 'per person' figure.
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Purchasing Power Parity (PPP)
Relates average earnings to prices and what it will buy.
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Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI)
Includes life expectation, literacy rates and infant mortality rates. The higher the score the better
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Human Development Index (HDI)
Is the same as for the PQLI plus school environment and PPP to measure standards of living
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Human Suffering Index (HSI)
Adds daily calories intake, access to clean water, inflation rate, access to communications, political freedom and civil rights indicating quality of life.
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Trading Blocs
Countries which group together to improve their economic interests and trade patterns.
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The International Monetary Fund (IMF)
A global banking organisation based in Washington, which exist to ensure global banking stability by assisting countries with investments and debt
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Export Processing Zones
Zones in which businesses are free to import raw materials, process and manufacture them, and re-export without paying duties or tariffs.
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Outsourcing
Employing overseas labour in their home country to do a job under contract to provide a service for a company in a developed country.
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Source Nations
Are those from which migrants have comes.
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Host Nations
Are those where migrants decide to go, or to which they are admitted.
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Natural Increase
The difference between birth rate and death rate in a population.
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Immigration
The inward flow of people into a country.
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Ageing Population
Means that the average age of the population is increasing
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Fertility Rate
The average number of children born per women
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Enclave
A group of People living in a community which is isolated or separated from the rest of the population
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Population Structure
The proportion of people in each age group compared to other age groups.
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Urbanisation
The increase in the percentage of people living in towns and cities.
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Super City
A population of over 5 million
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Megacity
A Population over 10 million
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World Cities
Cities of power based on trade, political strength, innovation and communiations.
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Megalopolis
A very large urban area that contains several metropolitan centres
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Deindustrialisation
The decline in manufacturing industry, and the growth in tertiary and quaternary industry.
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Ethnic Enclave
Part of a city in which the population is mainly from one ethnic group, often with its own religious beliefs and places of worship, together with shops and community centres.
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Hyper-urbanisation
Where the increase in the urban population is happening so rapidly that the city cannot cope with the needs of the people.
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Informal Sector
Self-employed work that is irregular and with little security
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Ecological Footprint
A measure of the amount of land and water that a population needs in order to produce the resources that it consumes, and to absorb its waste, with existing technology.
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Agenda 21
A programme run by the UN related to sustainable development.
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Sustainable Development
Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
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Baby Booms
Any period of greatly increased birth rate during a certain period, and is usually within certain geographical bounds.
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Carbon Sink
Reservoirs of carbon dioxide.
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Centrally Planned Economies
A country where nearly all business and industry is controlled by the state
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Reversed Colonialism
Where companies from previously colonised countries buy up companies in previously colonial countries
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Core
The centres of economic, political, and/or cultural power within a given territorial entity.
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Digital Divide
The gap between those with regular, effective access to digital and information technology, and those without it.
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Dynamic System
A social or geophysical structure that is constantly changing.
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Economic Migrants
People from a poor area who move to a richer area in search of a better life.
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Edge City
Cities which have grown up on the periphery of older cities, to which new industries and services have moved, away from old CBD.
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Fair Trade
An organized social & economic movement with regard to trade between developed & developing countries which promotes the payment of a fair price & higher social & environmental standards in areas related to the production of the variety of goods.
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First World
The developed world, the first areas to industrialise e.g. western Europe, Japan, Australasia and North America
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Third World
An outdated term for the poor or developing countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America.
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Fortress Europe
The term sometimes given to the concept of the EU's efforts to keep non-EU goods, business and nationals out of the Union's 27 member states.
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Free Trade
Trade between countries which takes place completely free of restrictions
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Globalisation
The production of goods and services on a worldwide scale to supply a global market leading to increasing interconnectedness and interdependence.
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Grey Pound
A term used in the UK to refer to the economic power of older, retired people.
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Greying
The increase in the proportion of older people in a population
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Illegal Migrant
A foreigner who either has illefally crossed an international political border or enter legally but over stated there visa to live and work in the country.
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Immigration
The inward flow of people into a country.
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Inputs
Something that is put into a system or project.
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Outputs
Something that comes out of system or project.
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Millennium Development Goals
8 goals set by 192 united nations members to try and reach by 2015 to help raise development standards.
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Net Migration
The difference between immigration and emigration in a certain area during a specified time frame
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Periphery
The areas most remote from the wealthy 'core' of a country or region
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Privatisation
Where government-owned businesses are sold to private owners.
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Pull and Push Factors
Push=In migration, any adverse factor which causes movement away from the place of resistance. Pull= positive factors that mean people move to that area.
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Quota
A fixed level indicating the maximum amount of imported goods or persons which a state will allow in.
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Remittances
Money migrant send back to family and friends in their home coutnries, often in cash, forming an important part of the economy in many poorer coutnries
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Replacement Level
The fertility rate needed to maintain population at its existing size by natural change (without allowing net migration)
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Replacement Migration
Where migrant workers are encouraged to move from states which have a labour surplus to states which have labour or skills shortage.
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Rural-Urban Migration
The movement of people from the countryside to the cities in search of work.
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Seasonal Agricultural Workers Scheme (SAWS)
An EU scheme allowing people to work in other EU countries for limited periods.
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Seasonal Workers
A worker who is allowed into a country to work only for a limited period, usually in agriculture.
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Sheltered Accommodation
Self-contained homes made of wood, metal or cardboard, often without access to electricity or running water.
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Social Cohesion
The linking together of people who are tied by one or more specific types of interdependency, such as values, visions, financial ties, friendship and kinship.
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Structural Adjustment Packages
Introducing changes to a nation's economy e.g.currency deprivation. These lead to countries qualify for a loan from the IMF.
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Tariff
A list of duties or customs to be paid on imports
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Three Ds
Jobs which are difficult, dirty and dangerous.
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Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
The average number of children who would be born per women if she were to live to the end of her childbearing years and follow normal patterns of fertility.
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Tourist Enclave
AN area set aside for tourists where they have little or no contact with the society they are visiting. It may have no benefit for the local economy as all its goods and services are brought in from outside.
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World Bank
A bank that is effectively controlled by subscriptions from rich countries which provides aid to the developing world.
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Crowded Coasts
Crowded Coasts
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Natural Increase
The difference between birth rate and death rate per 1000 people.
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Inward Migration
The movement of people into an area.
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Green Belt
A zone around an urban area where further building cannot take place and on which there are strict planning controls
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Brownfield Sites
Are land areas that were previously used for industry and commerce which can now be redeveloped.
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Estuary
The mouth of a large river where it meets the sea
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Ria
A flooded or drowned river valley formed at the end of the last Ice Age as glaciers melted.
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Container Port
A place where goods are imported and exported in large metal containers, which are then transferred between ships and lorries or trains.
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Hard Engineering
Involves structures built along the coast, usually at the base of a cliff of on a beach
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Soft Engineering
Is designed to work with natural processes in the coastal system to try to manage (and not necessarily prevent) erosion
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Abrasion
The grinding away of bedrock by fragments of rock which may be incorporated in ice.
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Anoxic
Without oxygen.
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Boulder Clay
The unsorted sediment deposited directly below a glacier, which has a range of particle size from fine clay to rock fragments and boulders. Also known as glacial till.
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Coastal Squeeze
a) Where coastal settlement is prevented from expanding due to the sea on one side and rural areas inland. b) An environmental situation where the coastal margin is squeezed between the fixed landward boundary and the rising sea level.
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Coastalisation
The movement of people to coastal areas.
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Corrasion
Same as abrasion
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Corrosion
The breaking down of something slowly, especially by chemical action.
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Cost-benefit Analysis
A technique where projected public schemes are evaluated in terms of social outcomes as well as in terms of profit and loss.
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Downsizing
a) Reducing the number of people who work in a business in order to reduce costs, b) Selling your house and moving to a cheaper one in order to save money.
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Eustatic
A world-wide change of sea level which may be caused by the growth and decay of ice sheets.
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Eutrophication
The process by which ecosystems become more fertile environments as detergents, sewage and artificial fertilizers flow in
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Fetch
The distance that a sea wave has travelled from its beginning to coast where it breaks.
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Footlose
Industry that can be sited in any of a number of places, often because transport cost are unimportant.
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Freeze-thaw
The weathering of rocks which occurs when water which has penetrated joints and cracks freezes and expands
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Geology
The scientific study of the Earth's, including the origin and history of the rocks and soils of which the Earth is made
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Hydraulic Action
The force of the water within a stream or river.
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Integrated coastal Management
An approach which sees the coastal zone as an interactive and dynamic complex of sub-systems.
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Isostatic
The rise or fall of the Eath's continental crust, often in response to the melting or accumulation of glacial ice.
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Plant Succession
The gradual evolution of a series of plants within a given area.
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Relief
The shape if the Earth's surface, 'high relief' has large differences in the height of the land.
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Salt Marsh
Mud flats in estuaries and sheltered bays on which vegetation has grown.
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Sea change
Australian term for coastalisation with the added special sense of people moving to small coastal towns for the improved lifestyle and low house prices.
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Sediment Cells
A length of coastline and its associated nearshore area within which the movement of coarse sediment is largely self contained.
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Shoreline Management Plans
Plans that take into consideration an entire sediment cell or sub-cell.
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Slumping
A mass movement where rock and soil move downwards along a concave face.
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Swell
A long series of ocean waves, generally produced by wind, and lasting after the wind has ceased.
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Terminal Groyne Syndrome
Beach erosion occurring just after the last of a series of groynes.
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Topography
The physical features of an area of land, especially the position of its rivers and mountains.
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Weathering
The process of weakening and breaking up rocks.
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Rebranding Places
Rebranding Places
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Rebranding
The way or ways in which a place is redeveloped and marketed so that it gains a new identity. It can then attract new investors and visitors.
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Transport Hub
Where several transport links converge in one location
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Economic Leakage
Occurs when money earned in one location 'leaks' or is spent in another location.
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Negative Multiplier
A downward spiral or cycle where economic conditions prevent growth.
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Primary Employment
Involves working in the production of raw materials or natural products.
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Post-production Countryside
How the countryside should be used if farming declines even more.
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Multiplier Effect
The increased economic activity which occurs when one business creates demand and benefits others.
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Subsistence Farming
When most of the produce farmers grow is used to feed themselves and their families, with little surplus to sell for cash.
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Fertility Rate
The number of children, on average, that a women will have in her lifetime.
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Affluent
Having a lot of money and a good standard of living
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Affordable Homes
Homes which can be afforded by young adults on or below the average wage.
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Brownfield Site
Are land areas that were previously used for industry and commerce which can now be redeveloped.
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Container Port
A place where goods are imported and exported in large metal containers, which are then transferred between ships and lorries or trains.
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Core and Perihery
A model of development which tries to represent the emergence of an urban system in four major stages, the difference between the affluent core and the deprived periphery are 2 'transition' regions, 1 upward and 1 downward.
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Cost-benefit Analysis
A technique where projected public schemes are evaluated in terms of socail out comes as well as in terms of profit and loss.
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Deprivation
Lacking in the provision of desired objects or aims.
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Destination tourism
When people visit a place simply because of a single attraction
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Diversity
To spread industrial commitment over a large range of activities so that there is no overdependence on on activity alone
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Eco-approaches to farming
Environmentally friendly ways of addressing a problem
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Footloose Industry
Industry that can be sited in any of a number of places, often because transport costs are unimportant.
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Greenfield Site
Sites which have never been developed or used for an urban use, or are on land that has been brought into active or beneficial use for agriculture or forestry
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Index of Deprivation
Same as Deprivation
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Infrastructure
The framework of communication networks,health centres, administration, and power supply necessary for economic development
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Inward Migration
Is people returning to there origins nations
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Key Players
The most important people or organisations involved in a project.
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Legacy
A situation that will exist in the future because of events and actions that take place in the present.
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Market-led Regeneration
The encouragement of private investment through planning, transport and land policies as well as substantial public investment.
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Multiple Index of Deprivation
The lacking of multiply necessaries or multiple effects of deprivation.
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Poverty Trap
When people are discouraged from taking higher paid work because that would mean that they would lose their benefit payments. Once income tax and other deductions they would end up earning less.
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Remittance Payments
Money that is sent home to families by people working in a foreign country or city in their own country.
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Subsidy
Money that is paid by a government or organization to reduce costs so that prices can be kept low.
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Sustainable Development
Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs
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Tangible Costs and Benefits
Costs and benefits that can be measured e.g cost of objects and earnings.
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Intangible Costa and Benefits
Costs and benefits that cannot be measured but which are important such as effects of a project on people.
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Card 2

Front

Are people forced to migrate as a result of changes to the environment.

Back

Environmental Refugees

Card 3

Front

Are those gases which are said to retain heat within the Earth's atmosphere and contribute to global warming

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Is a natural event/process which affects people

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Is the capacity of a person or group to anticipate, cope with, resist and recover from the impact of a natural hazard.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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