geography key themes

  • Created by: kayleigh
  • Created on: 27-04-13 21:26
what does the hydrological cycle show
how water moves around
1 of 213
what are the different parts of the hydrological cycle
the sea, land and the atmosphere
2 of 213
the hydrological cycle is a closed system, what does this mean
there are no inputs or outputs-the water just flows round in a cycle
3 of 213
where can water evapourate from
the sea and land
4 of 213
what is evaporation
when water is heated by the sun and turns into water vapour
5 of 213
what is transpiration
it is the evaporation of water from plants
6 of 213
how is water vapour moved inland
water vapour is moved inland by winds
7 of 213
what does water vapour condense to form
it condenses to form clouds and then falls over the land as precipitation
8 of 213
how can water move from one place to another (either called flows or transfers)
infiltration, percolation, throughflow, groundwater flow, surface runoff and channel flow
9 of 213
what is infiltration, percolation and throughflow
infiltration is when water soaks into the soil, percolation is when water moves vertically down through soil and rock and throughflow is when water in the soil flows downhill
10 of 213
what is groundwater flow, surface runoff and channel flow
groundwater flow is when water in rock flows downhill, surface runoff is when water flows overground and channel flos is the flow of water in a river
11 of 213
where can water be held on land
channel storage, groundwater storage, interception storage and surface storage
12 of 213
what is channel storage and groundwater storage
channel storage is when water is held in a river, groundwater storage is when water is stored underground in soil and rock. A rock that stores water is called an aquifer
13 of 213
what are interception storage and surface storage
interception storage is when water lands on things like plant leaves and doesn't hit the grounds and surface storage is when water is held in things like lakes, reservoirs and puddles
14 of 213
what is a drainage basin
an area of land drained by a river
15 of 213
Drainage basins are open systems what does this mean
there are inputs of water to drainage basins, water flows through the and are stored in them and there are outputs of water from drainage basins
16 of 213
what are the features of drainage basins
they are seperated by a boundary called a watershed, they're ridges of high land-water falling either side of these ridges will go into different drainage basins
17 of 213
what is a tributary, source, confluence and mouth
a tributary is a smaller river that joins a main river, the source is where a river starts usually in an upland area, confluence is a point where two rivers joined and mouth is where a river flows into the sea or a lake
18 of 213
what are the three main types of weathering
mechanical, biological and chemical
19 of 213
what is mechanical weathering
it is the breakdown of rock without changing its chemical composition, and example is freeze-thaw weathering
20 of 213
when does mechanical weathering happen
when the temperature alternates above and below 0, water gets ito rock that has cracks e.g granite, when the water freezes it expands which puts pressur eon the rock, the water thaws and contracts which releases pressure and this repeats in a cycle
21 of 213
what is chemcial weathering
it is the breakdown of rock by changing its checial coposition an exaple is carbonation weathering
22 of 213
when does chemical weathering occur
rainwater has carbon dioxide dissolved in it, which makes it a weak carbonic acid. carbonic acid reacts with rock that contains calcium carbonate e.g. limestone, so the rocks are dissolved by the rainwater
23 of 213
what is biological weathering
this is the breakdown of rocks by licing thinfs e.g. plant roots breack down rocks by frowing into cracks on their surfaces and pushing them apart
24 of 213
what is the path of a river which glows downhill known as
this is called its source
25 of 213
where is the upper and lower course in relation to the source
the upper course is closest to the source and the lower course closest to the mouth of the river
26 of 213
where do rivers flow
in channel valleys
27 of 213
what do rivers do
they erode the landscape-where it down then transport the material to somewhere else where it's deposited
28 of 213
what effects the shape of the valley and channel
whether erosion and deposition
29 of 213
what does the long profile of a river show you
this shows you the gradient (steepness) changing over the different courses
30 of 213
what does the cross profile show you
shows you what the cross-section of the river looks like
31 of 213
name the four processes of erosion
hydraulic action,corrasion, attrition and corrosion
32 of 213
what is hydraulic action
the force of water breaks rock particles away from the river channel
33 of 213
what is corrasion
eroded rocks picked up by the river scrape and rub against the channel, wearing it away. most erosion happens by corrasion
34 of 213
what is attrition
eroded rocks picked up by the river smash together and break into smaller fragments. there edges also get rounded off as they rub together
35 of 213
what is corrosion
river water dissolves some types of rock, e.g. chalk and limestone
36 of 213
what are the four processes of transportation
traction, saltation, suspension and solution
37 of 213
what is traction
large particles like boulders are pushed allong the river bed by the force of the water
38 of 213
what is saltation
pebble sized particles are bounced along the river bed by the force of the water
39 of 213
what is suspension
small particles like silt and clay are carried along by the water
40 of 213
what is solution
soluable materials dissolve in the water and are carried along
41 of 213
what is deposition
this is when a river drops the eroded material its transporting. it happens when a river slows down
42 of 213
why does a river slow down and deposit material
the colume of water in the river falls, the amount of eroded material in the water increases, the water is shallower e.g. the inside of a bend and the river reaches its mout
43 of 213
where do waterfalls form
they for where a river flos over an area of hard rock follwed by an area of softer rock
44 of 213
what are the first three steps of a waterfall
the softer rock is eroded more than the hard rock, creating a step in the river. as water goes over the step it erosed more and more of the softer rock, a steep drop is eventually created which is called a waterfall.
45 of 213
what are the next three steps of a waterfall creation
the hard rock is eventually undercur by erosion. it becomes unsupported and collapses, the collapsed rocks are swirled around at the foor of the waterfall where they erode the softer rock by corrasion, this creates a plunge pool, overtime it retreats
46 of 213
in the upper course of the river what is most of the erosion
most of the erosion is vertically downwards which creates steep-sided v shaped valleys
47 of 213
what are rivers not powerful enough to do
the rivers aren't powerful enough to erode laterally-they have to wind around the high hillsides that stick out into their paths on either side
48 of 213
what are interlocking spurs
the hillsides that interlock with each other as the river winds around them are called interlocking spurs
49 of 213
what are meanders
they are large bends in the river
50 of 213
how is a meander formed
the current is faster on the outside of the bend as the channel is deeper, more erosion takes place on the outside of the bend forming river cliffs, the current is slower on the inside of the bend and so eroded material is deposited on inside bend
51 of 213
how is an ox-bow lake formed
erosion causes the outside bends to get closer until there's only a small bit of land left between the bends. the river breaks through this land usually during a flood and the river flows along the shortest course. deposition cuts of the meander
52 of 213
what is a flood plain
this is the wide calley floot on either side of a river which occasionally gets flooded
53 of 213
what happens when a river floods onto a flood plain
the water slows down and deposits the eroded material that its transporting. this build up the flood plain, meanders migrate across the flood plain, aking it wider, the deposition that happens on the slip-off slopes of meanders also build this up
54 of 213
what are levees
they are natural embakments along the edges of a river channel
55 of 213
how is a levee created
during a flood, eroded material is deposited over the whole flood plain, the heaviest aterial is deposited closest to the river channel when the river slows down. over tie the deposited material build up creating levees along the edges of the channel
56 of 213
where is an example of a levee
yellow river in china
57 of 213
what are deltas
they are low lying areas where a river meets the sea or a lake
58 of 213
what are rivers forced to do when they meet the sea or lake
they are forced to slow down and deposit the material they are carrying
59 of 213
what happens if the sea doen't wash away the material it build up
the channel gets block which forces the channel to split up into lots of maller river called distributaries. eventually the material builds up so much that low lying areas of land called deltas are formed
60 of 213
what are the three types of deltas
arcuate, they have a rounded shape and lots of distributions, cuspate have a trinagular shape and few distributaries and birds food which are shapped how they sound
61 of 213
give examples of each delta
arcuate is found in the nile delta, cuspare in the tiber delta and birds foot in the mississippi delta
62 of 213
what physical factors make a river flood
prolonged rainfall, heavy rainfall, snowmelt, relief and geology
63 of 213
what human factors ake a river flood
deforistation and urbanisation
64 of 213
how can we reduce the risk of flooding
dams and reservoirs, channel straightening, man mande levees, flood warning, preparation and flood plain zoning
65 of 213
what are the four processes of erosion on the coast
hydraulic action, corrasion, attrition and corrosion
66 of 213
what is hydraulic action (in terms of coastlines)
hydraulic action is were waves crash against rock and compress the air in the crack. this puts pressure on the rock. repeated compression widens the crakes and makes bits of rock break of.
67 of 213
what is corrasion (in terms of coastline)
corrasion is when eroded particles in the water scrape and rub against rock, removing small peices
68 of 213
what is attrition (in terms of coastline)
this is when eroded particles in the way of water smash into each other and break into smaller fragments, their edges also get rounded off as they rub together
69 of 213
what are destructive waves
they have a high frequencey, high and steep, their backwash is more powerful than their swash this means material is removed from the coast
70 of 213
what effect the size and power on a destrucrive waves
wind- the force of the wind on the waters surface is what creates waves, a stron wind gives large, powerful waves. fetch-is the distance of water over which the wind has blown to produce a wave, a greater fetch means bigger and more powerful waves
71 of 213
what is a cove
it is a wide circular bay with a narrow entrance, they form where ther's a band of hard rock along a coast with a band of softer rock behind it
72 of 213
what is longshore drift
waves follow the direction of prevailing wind. they usually hit the coast at an obique angle. the swash carries material up the beach, in the same direction as the waves. the backwash then carries material down the beach at right angles,
73 of 213
what is deposition
it is when material being carried by the sea water is dropped along the coast
74 of 213
when are coasts built up
coasts are built up when the amount of deposition is greater than the amount of erosion
75 of 213
when is the amount of material depositid on an area of coast increased
theres lots of ersoion elsewhere on the coast, so thers lots of material available, theres lots of transportation of material into the sea
76 of 213
what do low energy waves do
they carry material to the coast but they're not strong enough to take a lot of material away-this means theres lots of deposition and very little erosion
77 of 213
what are constructive waves
they have a low frequency, low and long, the swash is more powerful then the backwash and they are made by weaker winds and have a shorter fetch than destructive waves
78 of 213
how are beeches formed
beaches are formed by deposition
79 of 213
why do humans want to protect the coast line
loss of tourism, loss of business, flooding, propertie prices will fall
80 of 213
what are environmental reasons to protect the coastline
ecosystems may become affected and may pose threats to SSSIs (sites of specific scientific interest)
81 of 213
what are the coastal defences
sea wall, rip rap, groynes, revetments, gabions, breakwaters, beach replenishment and managed retreat
82 of 213
what is the worlds population doing all the time
it is increasing
83 of 213
what are the two things which effect the population size
birth rate-the number of live babies born per thouand of the population per year and the death rate
84 of 213
what happen when the birth rate gets higher then the death rate
the population increases, known as a natural increase
85 of 213
when i it called the natural decrease
when the death rate is higher than the birth rate
86 of 213
what other factor is the size of the country affected by
migration which is the movement of people from one area to another
87 of 213
what do countries go through (population)
they go through five stages of population growth
88 of 213
how are population structures shown
by population pyramids
89 of 213
what are some social issues with too many people
service cant cope, children have to work, arn't enough houses and a hortage of food
90 of 213
what are some economic issues with too many people
there arn't enough jobs and there is increased poverty
91 of 213
what are some environmental issues with too many people
increase waste and pollution and more natural reources being used up
92 of 213
what is the birth control program
they aim to reduce the birth rate, some governments do thi by having laws on the amount of children a family can have-sex ed. this help sustainable development
93 of 213
what ate the imigration laws doing to control overpopulation
they aim to control iimmigration. governments can limit the number of people that are allowed to immigrate-they can be selective(fewer at child bearing age) this helps towards sustainable development
94 of 213
what social effects are there in an ageing population
healthcare services are stretched, need unpaid carers, fewer children and lower pension will be given
95 of 213
what economic issue are there due to an ageing population
the working population pay taxes and the economy of the country would grow more slowly
96 of 213
what are the stratergies to cope with an ageing population
encouraging larger families to have children-when they start work they can pay taxes, encouraging the immigration of young people, raising the retirement age and raising taxes
97 of 213
what is it called when people move into an area
this is known as immigration
98 of 213
what is it called when people leave an area
this is called emigration
99 of 213
what is it called when people move to different countries
international migration
100 of 213
what is internal migration
when people move between different regions within countries
101 of 213
what are refugees
these are people who have been forced to leave their country due to thing like war, persecturion or a natural diaster
102 of 213
what are economic migrant
these are people who move voluntariliy from poorer to richer places looking for jobs or higher wages
103 of 213
what are push factors
they are negative thing about a person plave of origin to make them want to leave
104 of 213
what are pull factors
they are positive thing about a person's destination that attract them to the destination
105 of 213
what are positive impacts on international migration
there i less pressure on esrvices like hospitals and schools, as there is fewer people and money is usually sent back to the country of origin by emigrants
106 of 213
what are the negative impacts of international migration
labour shortage, kills hortage and there i a high proportion of older people
107 of 213
what are the positive impacts on the detination country (migration)
there i a bigger labour force and migrant workers pay taces that help fund services
108 of 213
what are the negative impacts on the country destination (migration)
lovals and immigrants compete for jobs, the increased demand for ervices can lead to overcrowding in hopitals and schools and some of the money earned is sent to the other country
109 of 213
ways to manage international migration
points-based system, limit and targets and controlling illegal immegration
110 of 213
what is urbanisation
it is the growth in the proportion of a country's population living in urban areas
111 of 213
what is rural-urban migration
it is the movement of people from the countryide to the cities
112 of 213
what impacts does urbanisation have
overcrowding, increased traffic,pollution and waste, quatter ettlement (ledc) which are overcrowded-disease spreads easiliy, no drains so flooding i common and there are no basic services
113 of 213
what happens in rural areas when populations fall
an increasingly elderly population and even fewer services
114 of 213
how are the impacts in urban areas managed
building more homes, easing traffic, improving service and in ledcs imrove quatter settlement
115 of 213
how are the problems of urbaniation in rural areas managed
investing in local services like healthcare, giving loans and grants to buinesses and improving local transport
116 of 213
what is counter-urbanisation
it is the oppoite of urbanisation-its people moving our of citie to rural area
117 of 213
what are the puh factors (counter-urbanisation)
pollution and traffic congetion, crime rate and house in cities cost more
118 of 213
what are the pull factors (counter-urbanisation)
better tranport links and increased car ownership, the growth of IT and new out-of-town business parks mean more job are awailable outside cities
119 of 213
what are the rural impacts of counter-urbanisation
increased demand for house, many commuter prefer to use hops and services closer to work and people leave commuter village during the day
120 of 213
what are the urban impacts of counter-urbanisation
inner city areas with high crime and pollution become more empty and disused and commuter preger to hop and work on the outskirts of the city
121 of 213
how do governments manage counter-urbanisation in rural areas
making policies to provide more houses and investing in services
122 of 213
how do governments manage counter-urbanisation in urban areas
redeveloping urban areas and regenerating hopping areas
123 of 213
what is the CBD
this is the central business district. its usually found right in the centre of a city. it the commercial centre of the city with shops and offices
124 of 213
what is the inner city
this part i found around the CBD. it has a mix of poorer quality housing and older industrial buildings
125 of 213
what is the suburb
these are housing areas found towards the edge of the city
126 of 213
what is the rural-urban fringe
this is the part right at the edge of a ciry, where there are both urban land use and rural land uses
127 of 213
what are the social needs for urban development
more housing, more room for ocial activitie and better tranport systmes and route
128 of 213
what are the economic and environmental needs for urban development
more jobs and mmore waste disposal ystms and more green paces
129 of 213
give examples of sustainable development
carbon-neutral homes, building on brownfield ite, more efficient public transport systems and include recycling facilites in developments
130 of 213
what is a natural hazard
it is a naturally occuring event that has the potential to affect people live or property when they do affect thee factors they are called natural disaster, earthquakes and volcanoes are tectonic hazards caused by the movement of tectonic plates
131 of 213
what is the structure of the earth
in the middle it i the inner core-ball of solid iron and nickel then outer core-liquid then mantle-semi molten rock that moves very slowly and finaly the crust which is very thin
132 of 213
what is continental and oceanic crust
continental crust is thicker and less dense, oceanic crut is thiner and more dense
133 of 213
why do the plates move
because the rock in the mantle underneath them is moving, the plates where they mmeet are called boundaries or plate margins
134 of 213
what are destructive margins
they are where two plate are moving towards each other, the oceanic plate goes under the continental plate as it is denser. this casue volcanoe or ocean trenches. when they meet the plates smash together but no crust is destroyed
135 of 213
what is a constructive margin
they are where two plate are moving away from each other. magma rises from the matle to fill the fap and cool, creating new crust
136 of 213
what is a conservative margin
thee are where two plate are moving sidewats past each other, or are moving in the same direction but at different speeds. crust isn't destroyed
137 of 213
how do earth quake occur on detructive margins
pressure builds up when one plate gets stuck as its moving down past the other into the mantle
138 of 213
how do earthquakes occur on constructive margins
pressure builds along cracks within the plates as they move away from each other
139 of 213
how do earthquake occur on conservative margins
presure builds up when plate that are grinding past each other get stuck
140 of 213
what happens when the plates eventually jerk past each other
they send out shock waves (vibrations) and these vibrations are the earthquake
141 of 213
where do the shock waves spread out from
they spread out from the focus-the point in the earth where the earthquake starts
142 of 213
what is the epicentre
it is the point on the earths surgave straight above the focu. near the epicentre the hock waves are stronger and cause more damage
143 of 213
what is the richter scale
it is when the amount of energy released by an earthquake. the scale doen't have an upper limit and its logarithmic-thi means an earthquake with a magnitude of 5 is ten times more powerful than one with a magnitude of 4
144 of 213
where are volcanoes found
they are found at destructive and constructive plate margins
145 of 213
why at constructive plate margin do oceanic plates go under the continental plate
because it is more dense, the oceanic plate moves into the mantle, where it's melted and destryoed and a pool of magma form, the magma rise through cracks in the crut called vents and the magma erupt onto the surface forming a volcano
146 of 213
what happens at constructive plate margin (volcano formed)
the magma rises up into the fap created by the plate moving apart, forming a colcano. ome volcanoes alo form over parts of the mantls that are really hot-hotpots
147 of 213
what are the primary impacts of earthquake
buildings and bridges collapse, people are injured or killed by them, roads-transport damagd, electricity cables are damaged, ga pipe are brocken casuing leaks and cutting off supplies and underground sewage pipe brocken
148 of 213
what are the seconday impacts of earthquakes
can trigger landslides and tsunamis, leaking gas can be ignited-starting fire, homelessness, suffer phychological problems, shortage of clean water, roads are blocked and businesse are damaged
149 of 213
how can the impact of earthquakes increase
if their are lots of settlements built and buineses set up in an area this i due to more people and properties
150 of 213
why are impacts in ledcs more severe (earthquakes)
more poor quality houing, the infastructure is poor, they dont have much money to protect against earthquakes and healthcare is worst
151 of 213
why do people live in earthquake prone areas
they have always lived there, employed in the area, congident of support from their government and they don't think it will happen
152 of 213
how can you reduce the impacts of earthquake
prediction, building techniques, p;anning, education and aid
153 of 213
when is a stratergie sustainable
when it is cost effective, save to the environment and advance people in the future
154 of 213
why do people live close to volcanoes
soil is very fertiel as it i full of minerals, they are a tourist attraction and they are a source of geothermal energy which can generate electricity
155 of 213
what are the primary impacts of volcanic eruptions
buildings and roads are destroyed, people and animals are injured or killed, crop are damaged and so are water supplies-they are contaminated with ash and people, animals and plant are suffocated by carbon dioxide
156 of 213
what are the secondary impacts of volcanic eruptions
mudflows (lahars) cause destructions, fires are started by lava flows and pyroclastic flows, people may suffer phsycological problems, people are homeless, shortage of food and clean water, roads are blocked, buiness are damaged and sulphur dioxide c
157 of 213
how can you reduce the impacts of volcanoes
prediction, planning, building technique, education and aid
158 of 213
what are climatic hazards
they include tropical storms and draught
159 of 213
what are tropical storms
they are intense low pressure weather systms.
160 of 213
how do tropical storms develop
above sea water thats 27c or higher. they occur when sea temp are highet o they happen at different time in different place. warm, moist air rise and condenation-realse huge amounts of energy and so are very powerful. they move west due to easterly
161 of 213
what happens towards the edges of the storm
the wind peed falls, the coulds become smaller and more scattered and the rain becomes less intense
162 of 213
what are the characteristics of a tropical storm
they spin anticlockwise and move north west, circular in hape, last 7-14 days, centre i the eye and caused by descending air , low pressure light winds no clouds and no rain in the eye. eye surronded by eyewall- spiralling air, very strong winds
163 of 213
what happens towards the edges of the storm
the wind peed fall, the fclouds become smaller and more scattered and the rain becomes les intense
164 of 213
what are the primary effects of tropical storm
buildings and bridges destoyed, rivers and coastal areas flood, people drown or injured and killed, transport is damaged, electricity cables and telephone pole are destroyed, sewage overflos, crops are damaged and beaches are eroded-coastal habitats
165 of 213
what are secondary impacts of tropical storms
homelessness, shortage of clean water, roads are blocked or destroyed, businesses are damaged causing unemployment, shortage of food and phycological problems
166 of 213
why are tropical storms more severe in LEDCs
poor quality housing, infastructure is poor, people depend on farming, dont have much money and healthcare is often worst
167 of 213
how can you reduce the impacts of tropical storm
prediction, planning, building technique, education and aid
168 of 213
what is a drought
it is a long period when raingall is below average
169 of 213
what happen to water supplie during a drought
lake and river are depleted during a drought because people keep using them but they aren't replenished by rainfall
170 of 213
what are the climatic condition which cause draughts
changes in atmospheric circulation, high presure water ystems (anticyclone) block depressions
171 of 213
why do people live in areas of drought
they have alway lived there, they have go a job in the area and they don't think will happen again
172 of 213
what are the primary impacts of droughts
vegetation dies, people and animal die from dehydration, aquatic animal die as lakes dry up and soil drie out and is easily eroded by the wind and rain
173 of 213
what are the secondary impacts of droughts
animal die from starcation, shortage of food, soil eroion is increased, conflicts over water supply, people move out to find water, farms close causing unemployment, suffer phsycological problems,vegetation can be ignited and dust storms
174 of 213
how does overgrazing increase impacts of droughts
overgrazing reduces vegetation in an area. this make the oil erosion caused by droughts even worse-with fewer plants, soil in't held together as strongly o its eroded more easily
175 of 213
how can exceive irrigation increase impacts of draughts
it is where water is artificially supplied from rivers or lakes to farmland to increase crop production. however, excessive irrigation deplete rivers and lake, which increase the impact of drought as there is les water. salts are left in the soil
176 of 213
why are the impacts of droughts more evere in LEDCs
more people depend on farming and if crops and livestock die lots of people will lose their livelihoods and some might tarve. the have less money to prepare for droughts or repond to them
177 of 213
how can we reduce the impact of droughts
prediction, farming technique, water conservation, increase water upplies and aid
178 of 213
what does it mean when a country is developing
it gets better for the people living there-their quality of life improves.
179 of 213
what are the disadvantages of development indicators
they can be inaccurate for countries where trade i informal-(not taxed). ocial indicators are more difficult to measure but they give a better indication of quality of life. they can be misleading when ued on their own-they are average
180 of 213
what environmental factors can affect how developed a country is
poor climate, poor faming land, limited water upplie, lot of natural hazards and few raw materials
181 of 213
what are the three main political factors that slow development
might not invest in things like healthcare, education or improving the economy. they are corrupt and if there is a wat the country loses money that could be spent on something else
182 of 213
what factors can affect the level of development
poor trade link, lots of debt and an economy based on primary products
183 of 213
what oical factors affect development
drinking water, the place of women and child education
184 of 213
what is international aid
aid is given by one country to another in the form of money or resources
185 of 213
what is short-term aid
this is money or reource that help recipient countries cope during emergencies, the aid has imidiate impact
186 of 213
what i long-term aid
this is money or reource that help recipient countrie to develop, over time the country become less reliant on the aid although it can take a while
187 of 213
what are the four types of industry
primary, secondary, tertiary and quadternary
188 of 213
how do primary industries have an impact on the environment
farming, mining, fishing and forestry
189 of 213
how do econdary industrie cause pollution
factories can cause land, air and water pollution, habitats are destroyed and some factorie use a huge amount of energy
190 of 213
how do tertiary and quaternary industries use a lot of energy
tertiary and quaternary indutrie ue a lot of energy, this energy uually come from burning fosil fuel and o add to global warming and resources cause an impact when theyre manufactured
191 of 213
how does economic development damage the environment
there is an increase in industry, conflict in economic development
192 of 213
what ways are there to make economic development more sustainable
fam uing fewer herbicides and maintain hedgerows, mine with lows to reduce water poolution, forestry laws can be introduced, fihing can limit the amount of fih caught, factorie can reduce pollution and offices can conserve energy
193 of 213
what is global warming
it is a type of climate change, it is the increase in the earths temperature
194 of 213
what economic impacts does climate change have
it will effect farming-higher latitude means warmer weather and so will frow new types of crop to sell e.g. olive in the Uk, in lower latitude farmers income may decrease because its too hot and dry. the weather is getting extreme-spent on prediction
195 of 213
what are the environmenal impacts of climate change
global warming is causing sea level to rise, rising temperature and decreased rainfall means some environments may turn to deerts and the distribution of some species may change due to climate change.
196 of 213
what are the social impacts of climate change
people wont grow as much food, more people will die due to extreme weather events, hotter weather make it easier for some infectiou disease, some areas will become so hot and dry that they're uninbhabitable
197 of 213
what are the political impacts of climate change
water will become more carce o there will be competition, may cause people to move and governments are under presure to come up with ways to slow climate change or reduce its effects
198 of 213
what is the kyoto protocal
it is where most countries in the world hve agreed ro monitor and cut green house emmition, the aim is to reduce global greenhouse gas emmisions, each country is set a target
199 of 213
what are national response to climate change
new transport stratergie and taxation
200 of 213
what are the local reponse to climate change
congestion charges, recycling and conserving energy
201 of 213
what is globalisation
it is the process of countries becoming more integrated , every country has its own political and economic systems, it happen due to internation trade, international investment and improvements in communications
202 of 213
what have improvements in ict done
improvements in it include e-mail , internet ect this has made it quicker and easier for buinesses all over the world to communicate with each other
203 of 213
what have improvements in transport done
they include more airports, high speed trains etc, this has made it quicker and eaier for people all over the world, it has also made it easier for companies to get supplie from all over the world
204 of 213
how do multinational companies increase globalisation
they are companies which produce products , they are usually very rich and employ lots of people, they increase globalisation by linking countrie together and they bring culture to other countries
205 of 213
how do MNC affect economic development
they create jobs in the area so increaase the wealth, tazes are used to improve infastructure and services , this cycle i called the multiplyer effect, Mnc factories make more profit, they locate in LEDc for cheap labour
206 of 213
what positvie effect do MNCs have
they create job, they create some skilled jobs-encourage education, workers get high wages, pend money on infastructure, they supply income
207 of 213
what negative effects do MNCs have- mostly in LEDC
they job created aren't alway secure, may have to work long hours, paid lower wages, locals may struggle, profits go to the country the MNC comes from and large ite will attract lot of traffic
208 of 213
what effect doe gloalisation have in medcs
has caused deindustrilisation-secondary manufacturing industries have movED TO Ledcas labour is cheaper. they have developed their tertiary and quaternary industries instead. this has increased the gap between rich and poor
209 of 213
what effect does globalisation have in ledc
they have caused industrialisation in ledcs and nics-secondary manufacturing industrie have moved to ledcs and nics which increases the gap between rich and poor
210 of 213
globalisation have environmental impacts such as
carbon emmiions, waste, deforistation and oil pollution
211 of 213
globalisation have ocial and cultural impacts such as
can help to improe people quality of life, increased trade brings more jobs and money , government ue the money to improve infastructure and services like healthcareand education, people have more money and access to lower priced goods
212 of 213
what are cultural impacts of globalisation
some people think countrie are losing their cultural heritage as we all listen to the same music, wear the same clothe and drive the same cars, but could be good as they expose people to other culture
213 of 213

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

what are the different parts of the hydrological cycle

Back

the sea, land and the atmosphere

Card 3

Front

the hydrological cycle is a closed system, what does this mean

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

where can water evapourate from

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what is evaporation

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »