Geography - Coastal Zone

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What is mechanical weathering?
The break down of rock without changing it's chemical composition.
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Describe the process of mechanical weathering?
Wtaer alterantes above/below 0 degrees. This water then gets into cracks of rock. When this water freexes it expands and puts pressure on the rock. When it thaws it contracts and releases pressure on the rock.
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What is chemical weathering?
The breakdown of rocks by changing it's chemical composition.
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Describe the process of chemical weathering?
Carbon dioxide in the rain makes it a weak carbonic acid. This acid reacts with the rocks containing calcium carbonate therefore dissolving them?
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What is mass movement?
The shifting of rocks down a slope when gravity is greater than the force supporting it.
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What are the characteristics of destructive waves which carry out erosional processes?
High frequency, high/steep, backwash (movement of water down the beach) which is more poerful than swash, meaning material is moved from beach.
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Where and how is a wave cut notch formed?
By erosion at the foot of a cliff.
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How is a wave cut plaform formed?
Rock above wave cut notch becaomes unstaple and collapses. New notches formand repeated collapsing causes cliff to retreat (forming a wave cut platform).
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Where do headlands and bays form?
Where there is resistant and less resistant rock. Less resistant rock is eroded forming a bay. Resistant rock eroded slowly, leaving it justtting out, forming a headland.
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How is a cave formed?
Waves crash into headlands and by hydrauloc power and abrasion form caves.
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How is an arch formed?
Repeated erosion deepens the cave until it breaks through forming an arch.
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How is a stack formed?
Rock supporting an arch collapses, leaving a stack.
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How is material transported along the coast?
Longshore drift.
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Descrive the process of longshore drift?
Waves follow direction of prevailling wind hiting coast at na oblique angle. The swash carries material in this same direction. The backwas them carries material at a right angle bach to the sea. Overtime material zig zags along the coast.
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What is deposition?
When material been carried is dropped on the coast.
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When does the amount of material deposited increase?
Whe theres lots of erosion so lots of material or lots of transportation into the area.
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What are low energy waves?
Waves that carry material to coast but aren't strong enough to take a lot of material away meaning lots of deposition but little erosion.
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What are the characteristics of constructive waves?
Low frequency, ow/long, powerful swash carries material up the coast, backwas weak.
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How are spits formed?
When material is transported bu lonshore drift and deposited in the sea.
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How are bars formed?
When a spit joins together two headlands. Lagoons are formed behind them.
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Where are beaches found?
Between he high water mark.
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Wjat are the characteristics of sand beaches?
Flat, wide and have small particles so back wash can move them down forming long, gentle slope.
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What are the charcateristics of shingle beaches?
Steep, narrow and have large particles so backwash can't move them down forming steap slope.
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What are the causes of rising sea level?
Global Warming.
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What are two effects that cause rising sea level?
Melting ice (water returns to the sea) and oceans getting warmer meaning they expand.
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What are the economic impacts of coastal flooding caused by global warming?
Expensive to fix and loss of agricultural land.
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What are the social impacts of coastal flooding?
Deaths, water supply polluted, less housing (people left homeless). loss of jobs (coatal industries shut down).
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What are the environmental impacts of coastal flooding?
Vegetation killed and increased erosion.
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What are the political impacts of coastal flooding?
Policies must be made to reduce impacts of future flooding. As well as this building more defences or managing use of areas flooded.
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What is hard engineering?
Man made structures to control the flow of sea, reducing flooding and erosion.
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What is soft engineering?
Schemes set up using knowledge/ processes to reduce effects of flooding and erosion.
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What is a sea wall and what are the advantages and disadvantages?
Hard material wall like concrete that reflects waves. Prevents erosion and acts as a barrier to prevent flooding although creates strong bckwash which erodes under wall.
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What is rock armour and what are the advantages and disadvantages?
Boulders piled up along the coast. They absorb wave energy (reducing erosion/flooding) howeve boulders can be moved around by strong waves so need to be replaced.
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What are groynes and what are the advantages and disadvantages?
Fences built at right angles to coast, trapping material transported by longshore drift. They create wider beaches used as protection although can starve other becaches down the coast, narrowing them which does'nt protect coast.
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What is beach nourishment and what are the advantages and disadvantages
Sand/ shingle from elsewhere added. Creates wider beaches (slowing waves) however has to be repeated.
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What is dune regeneration and what are the advantages and disadvantages?
Craeting/restoring sand dunes by nourishment or planting vegetation. It provides a barrier, absorbing wave energy although tis is only beneficial to a small area.
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What is marsh creation and what are the advantages and disadvantages?
Planting vegetation in mudflats. It stabilises mudflats to reduce risk of floods, also creating new habitats however this is not useful when erosion rates are high.
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What is managed retreat and what are the advantages and disadvantages?
Removing defence and allowing land to flood behind. Marshland is formed (new habitats0, also used as protection although people disagree with it.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Describe the process of mechanical weathering?

Back

Wtaer alterantes above/below 0 degrees. This water then gets into cracks of rock. When this water freexes it expands and puts pressure on the rock. When it thaws it contracts and releases pressure on the rock.

Card 3

Front

What is chemical weathering?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Describe the process of chemical weathering?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is mass movement?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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