Geography - Coasts

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What are the two main types of weathering?
Chemical and Mechanical
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Describe one type of mechanical weathering
Freeze-thaw weathering. When water gets into the rock and the outisde temperature alternates between below and above 0. This causes water to freeze and expand, and then thaw and contract. This repeated action widens the cracks and breaks up the rock
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Describe one type of chemical weathering
Carbonation weathering. Rainwater has carbon dioxide dissolved in it, which makes it a weak carbonic acid/ This reacts with rock that contains calcium carbonate, so the rocks are dissolved by the rainwater
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What is mass movement?
When loose material and rocks shift down a slope. It happens when the force of gravity acting on the slope is greater than the force supporting it. Mass movement causes coats to retreat rapidly
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Name two types of mass movement
Slides - material shifts in a straight line Slumps - material shifts with a rotation
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Describe a destructive wave
Carries out erosional processes, have a high frequency, high and steep, the backwash is stronger than the swash
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Describe the formation of a wave-cut platform
Waves cause most erosion at the forr of a cliff, which forms a wave-cut notch, which is enlarged as erosion continues. The rock above collapses, and the material is washed away. This repeats and makes the cliff retreat. A wave-cut platform is left.
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Describe the formation of headlands and bays
They form when there are alternating bands of resistant rock and less resistant rock along the coast. The less resistant rock is eroded quickly, forming bays, and the resistant rock is eroded more slowly, leaving a headland jutting out to the sea.
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How are caves formed?
They are formed by waves crashing into headlands and enlarging cracks. This repetition leads to a cave forming
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How is an arch formed?
When continued erosion deepens a cave until it breaks through the headland, forming an arch.
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How is a stack formed?
When erosion continues to wear away the rock supporting the arch until it collapses, forming a stack, an isolated rock that's seperate from the headland
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Describe a constructive wave
Waves that deposit more material than they erode. Low frequency, low and long, powerful swash and weak backwash.
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How are beaches formed?
Formed by deposition. They are found on coasts between the high water mark and the low water mark. Formed by constructive waves
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What are the difference in characteristics between sand beaches and shingle beaches?
Sand beaches - flat and wide, sand particles small so backwash can move them down the beach, creating long, gentle slopes. Shingle beaches - steep and narrow. Shingle particles large and backwash can't move them down beach, creating steep slopes
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Describe the formation of a spit
They form at sharp bends in coastline (river mouth). LSD transports sand/shingle past the bend and deposits it in sea. Strong winds/waves can curve end of the spit. Sheltered area behind the spit is protected, and overtime this can turn into salt mar
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Describe the formation of a bar
Formed when a spit joins two headlands together. The bar cuts off the bay between the headlands from the sea. This means a lagoon can form behind the bar.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Describe one type of mechanical weathering

Back

Freeze-thaw weathering. When water gets into the rock and the outisde temperature alternates between below and above 0. This causes water to freeze and expand, and then thaw and contract. This repeated action widens the cracks and breaks up the rock

Card 3

Front

Describe one type of chemical weathering

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is mass movement?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Name two types of mass movement

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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