GEOGRAPHY: COASTS

Fetch
How far the wave has travelled
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Swash
When a wave breaks and water washes up the beach
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Backwash
When the water then runs back down the beach
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Abrasion
Where waves bring bits of rock and sand with them and grind the cliffs down like sandpaper
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Attrition
Where waves cause rocks and pebbles onshore to smash together getting smaller and smoother
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Solution
Acids contained in sea water slowly dissolving rocks such as chalk and limestone
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Longshore Drift
Acids contained in sea water slowly dissolving rocks such as chalk and limestone
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Constructive Waves
When the swash is stronger than the backwash
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Destructive Waves
When the backwash is stronger than the swash
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Wave-cut notch
When weathering weakens the top of the cliff while the sea attacks its base, it forms a wave-cut notch
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Headlands and bays
Formed when the sea attacks a section of coast that has alternate bands of hard and soft rock
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Caves
Made when waves force their way into cracks in the cliff face
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Arch
If the cave is in a headland, it can break through to the other side forming an arch
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Stack
The arch will grow until it can no longer support its top. It collapses, leaving the headland on one side and a stack on the other
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What is formed when a cave gets eroded right through to the other side?
An arch
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What is formed when a stack collapses?
A stump
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What does depostition create?
Spits, tombolos and beaches
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What are beaches made of?
Eroded material that has been transported and deposited by the sea
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A spit
A stretch of beach material that sticks out to sea, joined to the mainland at one end. If the wind direction changes, it can develop a hooked end
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Spits and longshore drift
Spits are commonly formed when the prevailing wind blows at an angle to the coast line causing longshore drift
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A tombolo
A stretch of beach material that sticks out to sea, joined to the mainland at one end
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Where would you find the smallest beach material?
Near the water because thats where the waves usually break
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Techniques for managing coastal erosion
Hard engineering and soft engineering
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Soft engineering evaluation
Soft engineering options are often cheaper. They are usually more long-term and sustainable, with less impact on the environment
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Examples of soft engineering
Beach Management, Managed Retreat
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Beach Management
Replacing eroded beach or cliff material. It requires constant maintenance to keep replacing the material as it is washed away
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Managed Retreat
Where low value bits of coast are allowed to erode and flood naturally. Encourages the development of beaches which are a natural defence
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Hard engineering evaluation
Hard engineering tends to be expensive. Solutions can be unsustainable and have a high impact on the landscape and environment
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Examples of hard engineering
Sea Wall, Groynes, Rock Armour
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Sea wall
Protects the cliff face against erosion and prevents flooding
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Groynes
Barriers built at right angles to the beach to prevent longshore drift
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Rock Armour
Placing large boulders at the base of cliffs for protection
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Swash

Back

When a wave breaks and water washes up the beach

Card 3

Front

Backwash

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Abrasion

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Attrition

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

Romilly

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Georgie these are so good thanks so much for all the help :) 

NBingham

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Card 7(longshore drift) answer is the same as card 6 (solution)

The answer should be: "The movements of sediments along the beach by the movement of waves"

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