geography coastal zone

  • Created by: eden1
  • Created on: 17-05-15 11:08
how are waves formed?
wind blowing over the sea and friction with the surface of the water causing ripples to form and these develop into waves.
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what is the fetch?
the stretch of open water over which the wind blows.
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why do waves break at the coast?
the wind causes the water beneath it to move in a circular motion. this continues until something interrupts the rotation (the beach). the circle isnt complete so the wave breaks at the coast
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what is the swash?
forward movement of the sea (up the coast) which often comes at an angle
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what is the backwash?
backward movement (down the coast) always go at a right angle to the beach
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what is a constructive wave?
deposition is greater than erosion (strong swash and weak backdrop). it has a spinnish wave
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what is a destructive wave?
erosion is greater that deposition (weak swash and strong backwash). this has a plunging waves
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what is traction?
large particles like boulders are pushed along the sea bed by force of the water
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what is suspention?
small particles like silt and clay are carried along the water
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what is saltation?
pebble sized particles are bounced along the sea bed by the force of the water
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what is solution?
soluble materials dissolve in the water and are carried along
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what is hydraulic action?
waves crash against rock and compress the air in the cracks. this puts pressure on the rock. repeated compression widens the cracks and makes bits of rocks break off
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what is abrasion?
eroded particles in the water scrape and rub against rock removing small pieces
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what is attrition?
eroded particles in the water smash into eachother and break into smaller fragments
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what is solution?
weak carbonic acid in seawater dissolves rock like chalk and limestone
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what is mechanical weathering?
the breakdown of rock without changing its chemical composition
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what is chemical weathering?
the breakdown of rock by changing its chemical composition
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what is freeze thaw?
it happens when the temperature alternates above and below 0'c. when water gets into rock it cracks and when the water freezes it expands putting pressure on the rock. when water thaws it contracts releasing pressure on the rock. the rock breaks up
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what is carbonation weathering.
rainwater has carbon dioxide in it which makes it a weak carbonic acid. this reacts with rock that contains calcium carbonate so the rocks are dissolved by the rainwater.
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what is mass movement?
this is the shifting of rocks and loose material down a slope. it happens when the force of gravity acting on a slope is greater that the force supporting it
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what are land slides?
material shifts in a straight line
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what are land slumps?
material shifts with a rotation
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how are wave cut platforms created?
most erosion is caused at the foot of a cliff forming a wave cut notch, which is enlarged as erosion continues. rock above the notch collapses and a new notch starts to form. the cliff retreats and the wave cut platform is the foot of the cliff left
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what are headlands and bays?
where there are alternating bands of resistant and non resistant rock along a coast. the less resistant rock will erode away quicker creating bays and the more resistant rock will be left sticking out (headlands)
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what are caves?
repeated erosion and enlargement of cracks cause caves to form
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what is an arch?
repeated erosion deepens the cave until it breaks through the headland forming an arch
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what is a stack?
where the top of the arch collapses leaving a stack
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what is a stump?
where the top of a stack wears away because of weathering
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


what is the fetch?


the stretch of open water over which the wind blows.

Card 3


why do waves break at the coast?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


what is the swash?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


what is the backwash?


Preview of the front of card 5
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