Geography-Changing Climates

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Lucyjoyce
  • Created on: 05-05-14 18:59
Define weather
Weather can change from minute to minute
1 of 41
Define climate
Climate is the average weather conditions over the last 30 years
2 of 41
What are the four ways to tell climate has changed?
1. Fossils of extinct species 2. Glaciation evidence with no ice 3. Rocks that show climatic conditions from when formed 4. Ice cores in Greenland and Antarctica show C0 levels when ice was formed
3 of 41
What are the 3 natural theories that can cause climate change?
1. Volcanic eruption theory 2. Sunspot theory 3. Milankovitch Mechanism (orbital theory)
4 of 41
What is volcanic eruption theory?
Volcanic eruption theory is when large eruptions emit vast quantities of ash and gases into the atmosphere which absorb solar radiation therefore the earth cools
5 of 41
What is sunspot theory?
Sunspots indicate the level of solar activity, therefore the more sunspots present the higher solar activity levels. This then causes the earth to increase or decrease in temperature
6 of 41
How frequent are sunspot cycles?
Sunspots occur in cycles of about 11 years
7 of 41
What is Milankovitch Mechanism (orbital theory)?
Milankovitch mechanism is the theory that the earth changes it's orbit and rotation which alters the levels of solar radiation reaching the planets surface.
8 of 41
What are the three parts to Milankovitch mechanism?
1. Orbital eccentricity- changing of the earths orbit over 100,000 years 2. Precession- how the earth moves on its axis over 26,000 years 3. Tilt- the tilt of the axis between 21 and 24 over 40,000 years
9 of 41
Give an example of a recent period of climate change
The Little Ice Age
10 of 41
When was The Little Ice Age?
1300 to 1870
11 of 41
What is the most likely reason for The Little Ice Age?
Reduced sunspot activity
12 of 41
What are the 7 effects of The Little Ice Age?
1. Baltic Sea and European rivers froze 2. Sea ice moved 3. Winters were colder and longer 4. Widespread crop failure and famine 5. Remote areas abandoned- uninhabitable 6. Price of grain increased 7. Glaciers overran farms and towns
13 of 41
What is megafauna?
Megafauna- the large mammals of a particular region, habitat, or geological period
14 of 41
What happened to the megafauna after The Little Ice Age?
Many of them became extinct
15 of 41
Why did the megafauna become extinct after The Little Ice Age? Give 3 reasons
1. Unable to cope with climate change and as their prey died out they too became extinct 2. Humans hunted them to extinction 3. A combination of the first two.
16 of 41
Give 3 examples of megafauna from this period
1. Giant beavers 2. Mammoths 3. Sabre tooth tigers
17 of 41
What is the UKs current climate?
Temperate Maritime Climate (mild and wet)
18 of 41
What are 3 characteristics of a temperate maritime climate?
1. All months have significant precipitation 2. Average winter temperatures are never below freezing 3. Summers are warm, not hot.
19 of 41
What is different about the UK?
It is unusually mild for it's latitude (should have warmer summers and colder winters)
20 of 41
What creates the UKs unique climate? Give 3 reasons
1. South west Atlantic winds cause precipitation 2. Surrounded by sea- controls temperature 3. Gulf stream warms UK air
21 of 41
Define air mass
Air masses are large bodies of air with particular properties
22 of 41
What are 4 results of future climate change in the UK?
1. Alter seasonal patterns of air masses 2. Seas get warmer around UK (hotter and more rainfall) 3. Increased level of weather extremes 4. Disrupt ocean currents so there's a cooler climate
23 of 41
What do greenhouse gases do?
Retain heat from the sun that would otherwise be re-radiated back into space.. Make the earth warm enough to support life
24 of 41
What is the greenhouse effect?
Solar energy comes into atmosphere (some reflected back to space). Earths surface is heated and then re-radiates the heat back into space. Greenhouse gases trap some of this heat.
25 of 41
How can the greenhouse gases trap the re-radiated heat?
The suns wavelengths are short whereas the earths re-radiated wavelengths are long therefore are easier to trap.
26 of 41
What are 3 greenhouse gases?
1. Nitrous oxide 2. Methane 3. Carbon dioxide
27 of 41
What causes C0 emissions to rise?
Burning fossil fuels (gas/coal/oil) and making cement and steel
28 of 41
What are the 5 biggest contributing countries to C0 emissions?
China, Russia, USA, India, and Japan
29 of 41
What is the result of increased C0 emissions?
Enhanced greenhouse effect
30 of 41
What is the enhanced greenhouse effect?
The enhanced grrenhouse effect is an increased amount of trapped heat due to an increased amount of greenhouse gases therefore trapping more solar radiation
31 of 41
What has caused the increase in greenhouse gases? Give 4 reasons
1. Industrialisation 2. Increased energy demand 3. Increased transport demand that requires fuel 4. Increased demand in industry for products and processes All of these burn fossil fuels which lead to an increase in greenhouse gases
32 of 41
Where does nitrous oxide come from?
Jet engines, fertilisers and sewage farms
33 of 41
Where does methane come from?
Cows emit methane- an increase in meat demand means more cattle therefore more methane emissions
34 of 41
What has deforestation done to C0 emissions and why?
They have increased for 2 reasons. 1. More trees are burned so higher emissions 1. Less tress to convert carbon dioxide to oxygen so it is unbalanced
35 of 41
What are the four varaibles that affect future global temperatures?
1. Rate of economic growth 2. Rate of population growth 3 . Development of renewable energy 4. Amount of recycling
36 of 41
What are the 2 reasons for rising sea levels?
1. Thermal expansion-temperatures rise so water expands 2. Melting ice caps and glaciers
37 of 41
What are 2 environmental impacts on the UK of rising sea levels?
1. Changes in animal and plant species 2. Increased storms cause more coastal erosion
38 of 41
What are 2 environmental impacts on Bangladesh of rising sea levels?
1. More frequent and stronger cyclones in Bay of Bengal 2. Increased drought in northwest
39 of 41
What are 2 economic impacts on the UK of rising sea levels?
1. More frequent and costly floods 2. Increased health costs from extreme weather conditions such as heatwaves
40 of 41
What are 2 economic impacts on Bangladesh of rising sea levels?
1. Flooding destroys crops and homes 2. Severe watershortage and widespread famine
41 of 41

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Define climate

Back

Climate is the average weather conditions over the last 30 years

Card 3

Front

What are the four ways to tell climate has changed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the 3 natural theories that can cause climate change?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is volcanic eruption theory?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all Climate change resources »