Geography Case Studies Restless Earth

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Fold Mountain Range Use Case Study Location?
Andes, South America
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What size are these fold mountains?
7,000 km long, 300km wide
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How do countries use these mountains?
For Farming, Mining, HEP, and Tourism
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Describe the use of farming in this case study
The country Bolivia uses terraces on steep slopes to grow potatoes. Most crops are grown in valleys. Some cash crops are grown like soybeans, rice, and cotton
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Describe how mining is used in this case study
In Peru, gold, silver, and tin are mined. Half of Peruvian exports from mining. Nickel is mined in Colombia. The Yanacocha mine (joint owned with US) is largest gold mine in the world
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Describe how HEP is used in this case study
HEP can be used due to steep slopes, narrow valleys, rain and snowmelt.
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Describe tourism in this case study
Tourists visit volcanoes, glaciers, lakes, Machu Picchu and Inca Trail. Inca Trail now has strict regulations with 200 trekkers per day
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How has this affected areas in South America?
A local town called Cajamarca has grown from 30,000 to 240,000 in recent years
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Volcanic Eruption Case Study Location?
Montserrat, Caribbean
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When did the volcano erupt?
Soufriere Hills volcano erupted on June 25th 1997, however small eruptions started in July 1995
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How was the volcano formed?
On a destructive plate margin, Atlantic Plate subducting under Caribbean plate
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How many were killed?
19
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What were the primary impacts?
Capital Plymouth covered in 12m of ash, 20 villages lost, airport, hospitals, and schools all destroyed
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What were the immediate responses?
People evacuated to safe zone in north, temporary shelters. UK gave £17 billion in emergency aid, local emergency services did search and rescue
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What were the secondary impacts?
Fires destroyed much infrastructure, tourism suffered, population fell from 12,000 to 4000. However, soil more fertile now, and tourist starting to return to see volcano
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What were the long-term responses?
Exclusion zone, south still off-limits while volcano is active. UK provided £41 million to develop north, new docks, airport and houses. Monsterrat Volcano Observatory set up to predict future eruptions
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Where did an earthquake occur in an MEDC country?
Kobe, Japan
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When did the earthquake occur?
5:46am, 17th Jan 1995. It lasted 20 seconds
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What was the magnitude of the earthquake?
7.2 on richter scale
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Where was the epicentre?
Awaji Island on Nojima Fault, part of destructive plate margin where Philippines plate subducts under Eurasian plate. Very shallow focus
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What were the consequences of the quake?
5500 died, 40,000 injured, 180,000 homes destroyed, 200,000 buildings collapsed, 1km of Hanshin Highway collapsed, 120 quays destroyed in one of the world's biggest ports (liquefaction), 230,000 homeless
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What was the issue with traditional housing?
90% of deaths occurred in these zones where heavy tiled typhoon-proof roofs fell on people
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How was the infrastructure affected?
Roads blocked, water mains failed
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When was Kobe's infrastructure fully operational?
July
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How did they respond to the earthquake?
Built better earthquake proof buildings, better recording instruments used
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Where did an earthquake occur in an LEDC country?
Kashmir, Pakistan
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When did the earthquake occur?
8th October 2005
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What was the magnitude of the earthquake?
7.6 on richter scale
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Why did the earthquake occur?
Due to a collision plate margin where Indian plate meets Eurasian plate (same plate boundary that formed the Himalayas)
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What were the consequences?
80,000 deaths (mostly from collapsed buildings, 100,000s injured, villages destroyed, 3 million homeless, water and electricity cut off, landslides blocked roads in mountainous areas so help didnt reach them for days
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What were some secondary effects?
Freezing temps killed some trapped, diarrhoea and cholera spread due to lack of services
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What was the response?
Tents, blankets and medical supplies distributed within a month but not everywhere, international aid (helicopters, rescue teams) brought in from overseas, 40,000 people relocated to a new town from destroyed town Balakot.
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How are people preparing for a future quake?
Government money given to re-build more earthquake proof homes and training given.
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Where did a tsunami occur and when?
Indian Ocean, hit 14 countries, mostly Indonesia, Thailand, Sri Lanka, and India. Occured on 26th December 2004
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Why did it occur?
Destructive plate margin, Indian plate and Eurasian
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What was the magnitude of the quake?
9.1 on richter scale
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What were the consequences?
Most destructive natural disaster ever - 230,000 killed or still missing, 1.7 million homeless. 5-6 million people needed emergency food, water and medical supplies. Massive economic damage, fishing, tourism. Enviro damage, coral reefs, mangroves
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Short-term responses?
Hundreds of millions pounds pledged by foreign countries, charities, individuals. Foreign countries sent ships, planes, soldiers, and rescue teams
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Long term responses?
Billions of pounds pledged to rebuild infrastructure, programmes set up to re-build houses and get people back to work. Tsunami warning system set up in Indian Ocean. Training given to volunteers, disaster management plans put in place
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What size are these fold mountains?

Back

7,000 km long, 300km wide

Card 3

Front

How do countries use these mountains?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Describe the use of farming in this case study

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Describe how mining is used in this case study

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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