Geography B Dynamic Planet Physical

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Name 2 differences between the continental crust and the oceanic crust?
The continental crust is less dense than the oceanic crust. Nature compensates for the imbalance in density because the continental crust is thicker than the oceanic crust.
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What is the crust made up of?
The crust is made out of sections called tectonic plates.
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What makes the lithosphere, and what state is it?
The crust + the uppermost mantle (asthenosphere). It is solid.
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Where the mantle located and what is are the properties of the mantle?
It is located below the asthenosphere. It is sticky, viscous, dense and semi-liquid. It slowly moves in great convection currents.
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Why is the earth’s crust broken up?
Because of the heat and pressure that builds up beneath the surface the crust is constantly stressed.
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How is new crust formed?
When 2 plates are being pulled away from one another the crakes open more which allows magma to rise through them to the surface and when it cools it forms a new crust.
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What is continental crust composed of?
It is composed of granitic rocks which is made of low density rocks.
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What is oceanic crust composed of?
It is composed of basaltic rocks which are denser.
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Why doesn’t the crust sink into the mantle?
Because the continental crust has a low density,
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What happens when an oceanic plate meets a continental plate?
The denser oceanic plate is forced down (subduction)
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How do convection currents cause plates to move?
1. The core heats up the molten rock in the mantle to create a convection current 2.Heated rock from the mantle rises to the earth’s surface 3. At the surface the convection current moves plates in the crust 4. Molten rock cools and flows back to the
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Name the 4 types of boundaries between tectonic plates.
Conservative, destructive and constructive.
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What is biome?
It is a large eco-system
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What is an eco-system?
A grouping of plants and animals that interact with each other and their local environment.
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What is the biosphere?
It is a zone where life is found
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Where is tundra found?
At high latitudes, typically within the Arctic Circle, here there is little sun light and little rainfall.
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Where are tropical rainforests found?
Are mostly fund on either side of the equator. The temperature is hot and there is heavy rainfall.
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Where are deserts found?
They are found between the tropic of cancer and the tropic of Capricorn. Here the air is hot and dry.
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How does latitude influence the location of biomes?
The angle of the sun’s ray’s increases with the distance from the equator the rays are more concentrated in the middle (equator) as a result there is less vegetation at high latitudes
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How does altitude influence the location of biomes?
Altitude is height above sea level, the higher up you are the colder it gets so no vegetation grows at high altitudes. The temperature decreases by 1 degree every 100m of altitude
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How does geology influence the location of biomes?
G-Porous permeable rocks like CaCO3 create dry conditions. This limits vegetation growth as there is lack of water. Impermeable rocks such as granite or clay allow tree growth. D-Areas that are poorly drained by river reduce vegetation growth. E.g. M
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Water stops flowing over periods of time, t becomes temporarily stored in lakes, ice caps, oceans etc. 99% of water it stored in ocean and ice caps.
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Infiltration – water s soaked into the soil and it flows slowly through it into rivers Percolation-water is soaked into rocks below it moves slowly through air spaces or cracks in the rock.Surface run off- this is when water flows over the surface to
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Name a hard rock and a soft rock.
Granite, Chalk- Hark rock (resistant to erosion). Clay-Soft Rock (easily eroded by the sea).
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What is the shape of cliffs like on a hard rock coast in contrast to a soft rock coast?
HD-high, steep and rugged. SD-may be high but less rugged and not so deep
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What is the cliff face like on a hard rock coast in contrast to a soft rock coast?
HD-Cliff face is often bear with no vegetation and loose rock.SD-There may be piles of mud and clay which have slipped down the face of the cliff.
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What is the foot of the cliff like on a hard rock coast in contrast to a soft rock coast?
HD- A few boulders and rocks which have fallen from the cliff. SD-Very few rocks, some sand and mud.
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How can waves erode the coast through hydraulic action?
Hydraulic action – the force of the water hits the cliffs, forcing pockets of air into cracks, when the wave retreats the air inside expands quickly causing a minor explosion.
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How can waves erode the coast through abrasion?
Coast is worn down by material carried by the waves, waves hurl the particles against the rock, sometimes at a high velocity.
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How can waves erode the coast through attrition?
Material carried by the waves will become rounder and smaller over time *** it collides with other particles and all the sharp edges get knocked off.
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How can waves erode the coast through corrosion/solution?
This is the chemicals within the water wear the away rock. The acids in salt water slowly dissolve rocks on the coast wearing them away as they do so e.g chalk, limestone.
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Give an example of a discordant coast and a concordant coast.
D-Swanage bay C- Lulworth cove
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Give an example of a cave, stack and arch.
C- Strangle pot A-Durdle door S-Old harry
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Name and explain the 2 different types of waves
Swash-when waves break, water rushes up the beach, due to energy from the wave. Backwash-when water has lost its energy further up the beach, it runs back down again due to gravity.
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What is fetch?
The distance of sea over which wind blows and waves move towards the coastline
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Name the factors that affect whether a coast will erode?
Rock type, human interference, type of waves, weather
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How waves are be formed?
By the wind blowing over the sea and as they reach the sea they break.
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How wave cut platforms are be formed?
The waves attack the base of the process of abrasion, hydraulic action and attrition. Overtime the cliff will be undercut and a wave cut notch is formed, overtime this will enlarge and eventually the cliff will become unstable and due to gravity, col
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What is a cliff?
A cliff is a sheer rock face, facing out to sea
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What are sub aerial processes?
Land based procedures which alter the shape of the coastline. A combination of weathering and mass movement. They weaken the cliff for the waves.
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What is the coast line?
The coastline is the narrow zone between the land and the sea.
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What is weathering?
It is the breakdown of rock by natural process without the involvement of forces
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What is slumping?
It often happens when the bottom of the cliff is eroded. The slope becomes steeper and the cliff can slide downward in a rotational manner this is usually triggered by saturation.
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What is biological weathering?
The roots of vegetation and grow crack into cracks in a rock and split the rock apart.
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What is freeze thaw?
When water enters a crack in a rock and then if freezes, it expands and splits the rock.
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What is chemical weathering (acid rain)?
When the chemicals in water reacts with the mineral in the rock.
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What is mass movement?
The downslope movement of material due to gravity.
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What is coastal deposition?
When the sea deposits material. Including sand, sediment and shingle. Constructive waves are needed for coastal deposition features to form.
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How are beaches formed?
Beaches form in sheltered environments e.g bays as the waves don’t take the sediment away. The waves sort out the material pushing the bigger material to the back of the beach and the finer material nearer to the sea.
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How are spits formed?
Pebbles and sand are moved across the coast due to a process of longshore drift. A spit is formed when this process is interrupted due to a change in land direction or if it meets a river estuary. Overtime a narrow ridge called a spit is formed and b
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What a bar and how is it formed?
Spit ish + it is formed when a spit grows and builds across an estuary. The bar cuts off rivers from the sea so behind it a fresh water lake of lagoon is formed e.g slapton ley in Devon
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How might climate change affect coasts?
Sea levels are predicted to rise because of cc. meaning low lying areas e.g Bangladesh are at risk of flooding .There is likely to be more frequent/stronger storms meaning some coastlines are eroded faster. May damage depositional features.
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What is an extreme environment?
An environment that is difficult to live in.
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What are the characteristics of desert regions?
Hot and dry
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Where are deserts found?
They are found at lower latitudes between the topic of cancer and Capricorn. They are extremely large Sahara = 3.5 million square metres.
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What are the characteristics of Polar Regions?
Cold (-50c in summer and -8 to -16 in winter) and dry
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How are plants and animals able to survive in polar regions
1. They can find water storage/food 2. They can move around on the ice sheets safely 3. They can protect themselves from predators.
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What problems do artic people face?
Extreme cold, darkness and isolation, permafrost- frozen ground which no plants can grow on, they are isolated as they are unable to transport expensive materials
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How are buildings in Polar Regions?
They have triple glazing- reduce heat loss. Pitched roof to allow snow to slide of. Small windows- reduce heat loss and it is often dark. Store timber + coal 4 fuel. House are no raised stilts to prevent the heat from melting permafrost beneath.
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How is transport in artic regions?
In the winter it is easy to move around as ground is frozen skis, dog sleds, snow mobiles. The roads are built on 1 metre thick gravel to stop heat melting the permafrost. Cars are plugged into heater over night to stop them freezing
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How is clothing in artic regions?
Thick fur coats often made of reindeer. Sealskin boats.
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How is farming in artic regions?
They have to hunt and fish from the ground, it is too frozen to grow food, import food-expensive.
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How are buildings in hot Regions (bed win people-desert dwellers)?
Thick walls-keep heat out. Flat roof as pitched roofs are not needed in low rain areas. Venda’s-to keep the sun away from windows and walls (canopy’s).
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How is clothing in hot regions?
Long sleeved clothes that are lose 2 allow heat to circulate around the body, prevents sweat from evaporating too quickly + slows down rate of hydration of clothes. Made of wool – provide ins men- wear head cloth around face- keep out of heat, wind,
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How do the bedwin people transport?
By camel – they can go days without h2o
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How do the bedwin people get food?
Water from wells and holes, trade for grain and dates
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is the crust made up of?


The crust is made out of sections called tectonic plates.

Card 3


What makes the lithosphere, and what state is it?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Where the mantle located and what is are the properties of the mantle?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Why is the earth’s crust broken up?


Preview of the front of card 5
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