Geography A2 Terminology

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Lithospere
The brittle top layer of the earth's surface where the crust is joined to the top of the mantle.
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Asthenosphere
The zone in the MANTLE just below the lithosphere which is weaker and more ductile and plastic. This means rocks are more easily pushed sideways by forces of convection from below.
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Plate Tectonic Theory
The idea that the earth's surface is a series of moving slabs of lithosphere.
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Convection currents
The movement of heat left over in the earth's core as is rises and falls in the mantle.
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Convection Currents process
Convection current rise from the lower mantle and bring hot solid rock to the asthenosphere. The rock then travels laterally in the asthenosphere due to the rock becoming more ductile. The sideways movement drags the lithosphere above with it.
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Constructive
Divergent, moving apart.
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Destructive
Convergent, moving together.
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Conservative
Transform, moving side by side in same direction or different speeds.
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Horsts
Bulges on the surface occurring at rift valleys where the asthenosphere heats up the plate above.
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Grabens
Where the crust in between the parallel fault lines along a rift valley collapses.
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Subduction
When the continental plate meets an oceanic plate the denser, basaltic oceanic plate sinks below the less dense, granite based continental crust.
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The Benioff Zone
The melting zone where the plate is fully destroyed during subduction under a plate.
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Uplift
The growing of young fold mountains as they are compressed and continue to grow in height.
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Vulcanicity
The escape of magma from the mantle into the lithosphere (intrusive) or onto the earth's surface (extrusive).
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Decompression melting
As the convection draws rock into the asthenosphere from the lower mantle the pressure drops allowing the rock to melt. Tends to happen at constructive boundaries and hot spots.
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Hydration melting
Happens at subduction zones where the water and other volatiles escape from the subducting plate. This lowers the melting temperature of the overlying rock in the lithosphere above.
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Intrusive activity
When magma forces its way into the lithosphere by exploiting weaknesses such as fault. This usually happens at plate margins or hot spots. When magma does intrude into the lithosphere it cools, the crystallises and solidifies to form igneous rock.
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Extrusive activity
refers to the escape of water, steam and other gasses above the surface due to geothermal activity below the surface.
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Basalt
Runny low viscosity lava formed by partial melting at constructive margins and hot spots.
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Andesitic
medium viscosity lave formed by partial melting at destructive plate margins and hydration melting of subducted oceanic plates.
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Rhyolitic
Highly viscous lava with high silica content formed by partial melting of continental and oceanic subduction margings and continental hot spots.
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shield Volano
Liquid lava from main vent creates flat gentle sloping sides.
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Cinder cone
Explosive liquid lava builds up layers or ash often forming a shield volcano.
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Composite/ Strato volcano
More viscous lave builds up on the sides of the volcano creating steep sides.
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Caldera
A very large composite volcano that has a collapsed magma chamber due to a highly explosive period.
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Tephra
solid material ejected into the atmospere. Lava bombs and ash, Ash clouds can get suspended in the air- slight change in the climate.
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Pyroclastic Flows
super heated gases and ash vaporise organs.
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Poisonous gases
May be toxic or corrosive- CO2, sulphur dioxide and chlorine.
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Focus
The point inside the crust where the pressure is released.
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Epicentre
The point on the earth's surface directly above the focus.
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Primary
travel fastest and vibrate in the direction they are travelling in (longitudinal waves).k
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Secondary
Half the speed of p waves and shear rock by vibrating at right angles to direction of travel (transform waves).
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Surface
travel the slowest near to the ground.
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Love waves
secondary but on the surface.
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Rayleigh waves
in a rolling motion- most destructive, causes land to move up and down.
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Richter scale
Measures the strength of the seismic wave at the focus. Uses a logarithmic scale, each unit shows a 10 fold increase in the seismic wave however the energy increases by 30 times per unit.
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Moment Magnitude Scale- MMS
Updated version of Ritcher scale. Takes into acount the size of the rupture, amount of displacement and rigidity of the rock.
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Mercalli
Measures the intensity of the effects of the earthquake. Uses Roman numerals SO YOU SHOULD TO!!
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A tsunami
a series of long waves triggered by a sudden displacement of seawater. A seismographic tsunami results from a rupture on the sea floor during an earthquake.
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Identity
Refers to the sense of belonging to a group of people or a particular place. Based on special characteristics of their culture and Ethnicity.
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Ethnicity
the idea that we can group people according to their shared cultural identity or racial groups which identifies people according to physical appearance.
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Culture
The customary beliefs and practices of a social group.
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Resources
The desire to gain and control valuable resources like water, land, oil.
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Territory
an area of land controlled by a particular government or authority. Conflict can arise when there is a disagreement over who should own or control a territory.
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Ideology
Social, economic and political ideas on how society should be run. E.G Democracy and Communism.
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Local
Conflict in a local area, in a city or urban area. E.G Conflict between students in a town/city near a university. Small riots in one town that dont affect surrounding towns. Planning protests- Liverpool 1 and the Trafford Centre.
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Regional
Conflict in a certain region. When a part or a nation (E.G the north west) has a strong identity that may be different to the rest of the nation.
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National
Usually a country (E.G The UK) where they have a strong belief of something or want for a resource.
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Non-violent
Hunger strikes, Facebook groups, Graffiti. do not involve armed struggles and may increase to more violent expressions
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Political activity and Debate
When a political party gain votes for their ideology by debate
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Terrorism
Methods used to force the government into doing an action that supports the attackers political or ideological idea by striking fear in unprepared members of the public
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Insurrection
More people than terrorism- not organised fighting. Insurgents may be in combat with government forces
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War
An open declaration of conflict between nations.
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NGO's
None governmental organisations which are none profitable organization and have nothing to do with the government or their funding
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UN
United nations- an international organization committed to maintaining international peace and security and improving lives and human rights.
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Multiculturalism
Where significant numbers of peple differ from the majority of the population, E.G in terms of language, customs, food and festivals, religious beliefs.
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Assimilation
The expectation that new migrants will lose their distinctiveness and adopt the culture of the host country.
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Pluralism
The expectation that migrants live along side the local culture with their own celebrating the cultural diversity that migrants bring.
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Fundamentalism
A complete belief in your own faith, with a refusal to accept any other view point
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Sepratism
Support by a number of people in a region for political separation from a central government on the basis of cultural, ethnic, religious or political differences.
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Autonomy
When people want some control over government decisions but not full separation from central government
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Nationalism
A belief in the value of a nation and its sense of identity for a population
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Regionalism
When one region tries to take control from a central government
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Referendum
A direct vote to either accept or reject a particular proposal in this case the proposal to be separate from central government
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Central Government
The government of a national state which have distinct powers.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The zone in the MANTLE just below the lithosphere which is weaker and more ductile and plastic. This means rocks are more easily pushed sideways by forces of convection from below.

Back

Asthenosphere

Card 3

Front

The idea that the earth's surface is a series of moving slabs of lithosphere.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The movement of heat left over in the earth's core as is rises and falls in the mantle.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Convection current rise from the lower mantle and bring hot solid rock to the asthenosphere. The rock then travels laterally in the asthenosphere due to the rock becoming more ductile. The sideways movement drags the lithosphere above with it.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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