Geography

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  • Created by: Laura
  • Created on: 06-06-13 08:56
Where and when was Hurricane Katrina?
Caribbean, Noew Orleans and Southern USA on the 23rd-29th August 2005.
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How many died in Hurricane Katrina?
1833 in total, 1200 of those had drowned in floods.
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How fast were the winds in Hurricane Katrina?
282km/h
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How many oil platform were destroyed by Hurricane Katrina?
30, which caused oil prices to soar.
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How many were left homeless or without electricity after Hurricane Katrina?
Over 1 million left homeless and 3 million with no electricity.
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How much of New Orleans was flooded due to Hurricane Katrina?
80%
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Why did the levees fail in New Orleans when Hurricane Katrina hit?
They were only strong enough for a force 3 storm, and Hurricane Katrina was force 5 but by the time it hit land it was a force 3, so the levees should have coped but failed. There were 53 breaches of the levees.
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How much was spent on damages after Hurricane Katrina?
$125 billion. The insurance companies stopped paying out also.
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How many houses did Hurricane Katrina destroy?
300,000
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What effect did Hurricane Katrina have on society in New Orleans
Racial tensions intensified, murder, looting, ****, suicides and violence all occured (although some were just rumors which restricted the aid given to the area).As a result over 1 millon left New Orleans permenantly,most were from ethnic minorities.
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How much forest area did Hurricane Katrina destroy?
5300km2
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How much of new permenantly flooded land did Hurricane Katrina produce?
560km2
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How much aid was sent after Hurrican Katrina?
Britain sent food aid and in total the world sent $6.23 billion in aid.
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Who were critizised after Hurricane Katrina and why?
Federal Emergancy Management Administations (FEMA), because they failed to predict the hurricane and suggest suitable protection for the coast, even though they had known for years that a hurricane in the area would have been devastating.
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How many people were evacuated before Hurricane Katrina?
80%-90%. More than half of the states fostered the homeless.
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Who was sent in to maintain order after Hurricane Katrina hit New Orleans?
300,000 National Guardsmen and the military arrived on August 28th.
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How many did the coast guard save in Hurricane Katrina?
33,000 of the stranded.
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Where and when was Cyclone Nargis?
Burma and the Bay of Bengal on 2nd May 2008.
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How many died in Cyclone Nargis?
More than 14,000 fatalities, which created many orphans.
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How many buildings were destroyed in Cyclone Nargis?
75% of buildings, including1700 schools and 1163 temples.
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How many farm animals died in Cyclone Nargis?
200,000
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How much was paid in damages after Cyclone Nargis?
$10 billion.
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How big was the storm surge after Hurricane Katrina?
8.5m
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How big was the storm surge after Cyclone Nargis?
7.6m
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How high were the winds in Cyclone Nargis?
135km/h
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How far inland did flood waters penetrate after Cyclone Nargis?
40-50km
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How many were left homeless or without clean water after Cyclone Nargis?
1 million were left homeless and 70% without clean water.
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What happened to the rice after Cyclone Nargis?
2008 and 2009 harvists failed causing the majority of the area's income to be lost.
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What aid did Italy send after Cyclone Nargis?
Italian flights were allowed ti bring food aid on the 7th May.
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What aid did India send after Cyclone Nargis?
Indian navy and airforce gave 140 tonnes of tents and other supplies.
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What aid did Britain send after Cyclone Nargis?
£17 million.
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What did the aid allow to be set up after Cyclone Nargis?
On the 8th May two mini hospitals were set up with 50 doctors.
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Where do tropical storms occur?
Near the equator in the tropics, so that the temperature is hot enough to heat the sea to over 27C.
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When is the tropical storm season?
In the Northern Hemisphere from June (in the west) till December (in the east). In the Southern Hemisphere from December till March.
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How do tropical storms form?
Sea temperature over 27C-Hot, moist water to rise off sea-Low pressure and clouds-Sucks air in which heats and rises-Rotation of earth and trade winds causes wind to spin-Warm air rises faster-Winds spin faster-Heavy rain falls-Cold air sinks in mid.
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How do tropical storms gain speed?
As the storm moves over the sea and it gains more moisture, creating more low pressure to **** air into.
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What way does a tropical storm rotate?
Anti-clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere. Clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.
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Where do the majority of tropical storms occur?
33% in East Asia, 20% in the South West Pacific and Austrailia, 17% in West America.
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Where do droughts occur?
Between tropical rainforests and deserts, usually near the equator, where the pressure above the land is equal to the pressure above the sea.
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How do droughts form?
Both the land and sea heat up equally (instead of the land more than the sea) this creates an equal low pressure-The moist rising air over the sea condenses to form clouds-Equal low pressure means that there is no movement of clouds to the land.
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Where do tectonic hazards occur?
On tectonic plate boundaries.
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Where do earthquakes occur?
At subductive, convergent and conservative plate boundaries, where one plate slips causing a jolt in the earth.
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Where do volcanoes occur?
At divergent and subductive plate boundaries, where the movement of the plates causes magma to breach the crust or be forced through the crust.
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What are the four different types of plate boundaries?
Subductive (heavier plate sinks under lighter plate) - Convergent (two plates colliding) - Divergent (two plates pulling apart) - Conservative (two plates moving beside eachother, either the same direction at different speeds or different directions)
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What is the focus and the epicenter of an earthquake?
The focus is the earthquake's underground point of origin. The epicenter is directly above the focus and is what we feel.
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Where and when was the Northridge earthquake?
Northridge in Southern California on the 17th January 1994 at 04:31am.
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What caused the Northridge earthquake?
A slip on the San Andreas faultline, where the North American plate and the Pacific plate are heading in the same direction but the Pacific plate is moving faster, it is a conservative plate boundary.
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How many fatalities from the Northridge earthquake?
57
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How many injured from the Northridge earthquake?
8,700
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How far did the damage occur up to from the Northridge earthquake?
85 miles away and the majority in the San Fernando Valley.
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What was the magnitude of the Northridge earthquake?
6.7
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What disease spread as a result of the Northridge earthquake?
There were 203 cases of Valley Fever (10 times more than usual) and 3 died from it.
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What were the social effects of the Northridge earthquake?
Shortage of sanitation and clean water, 11 hospitals suffered damage, people left homeless, psycological problems from the trauma for survivors, unemployment, blocked roads and leaking gas ignited.
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What were the economic effects of the Northridge earthquake?
Businesses damaged or destroyed, huge insurance pay outs, loss of tax due to unemployment and huge cost to repair.
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What were the environmental effects of the Northridge earthquake?
It triggered landslides and aftershocks.
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What was the response to the Northridge earthquake?
Many legistrative changes, insurance companies stopped insuring and the reinforcement of freeway bridges.
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Where and when was the Sichuan earthquake?
East Sichuan region in China on the 12th May 2008 at 14:28pm.
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How many fatalities from the Sichuan earthquake?
69,195
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How many missing from the Sichuan earthquake?
18,392
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How many injured from the Sichuan earthquake?
374,643
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What happened to a cargo train in the Sichuan earthquake?
It derailed with 13 tanks of petrol and blew up.
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In rural areas how many buildings did the Sichuan earthquake cause to collapse?
80%
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How many building collapsed in the Sichuan earthquake?
Around 5 million.
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What was the cost to rebuild predicted to be for the Sichuan earthquake?
$75 million
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What changes to the environment occured after the Sichuan earthquake?
Landslides caused the formation of quake lakes.
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What was the magnitude of the Sichuan earthquake?
7.9 magnitude.
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How many were left homeless after the Sichuan earthquake?
5 million
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What general effect did the Sichuan earthquake have on families?
They lost their only child, as many schools collapsed and China had a one child policy.
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What did the banks do after the Sichuan earthquake?
Wrote off all debts owed by survivors.
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Why did it take so long to rebuild after the Sichuan earthquake?
Most of the Chinese money had gone into developing the Olympics which was being held in China that year, so they had to wait for the profit of the games to rebuild.
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How many major aftershocks from the Sichuan Earthquake?
149-269
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What help came after the Sichuan earthquake?
Immediate help came from volunteers and survivors. On May 15th the government asked for international help.
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What caused the Sichuan earthquake?
A collision on the Longmenshan faultline, between the Indian and Eurasion plates, its a convergent plate boundary.
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Why do people live in hazardous areas? (social reasons)
Improved management schemes, cheap housing, jobs, tourist attraction, study, have to live somewhere, no choice, technology advances, ignorance and they want to live there because it is a beautiful area.
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Why do people live in hazardous areas? (economic reasons)
Fertile land, money and jobs, good soil, geothermal energy, fossil fuels, valuable materials and tourism.
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Why do people live in hazardous areas? (environmental reasons)
Attractive scenery and surroundings, enjoy living there, attracts tourists as they are rare sights.
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Which human activities make the impacts of natural hazards worse?
Farming at the foot of a volcano,overgrazing, building densly populated areas, weak infilstructure, deforestation, tourism (more people/use resources which locals need), living in remote places and living nearer to the hazard.
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Which human activities make the impacts of natural hazards better?
Earthquake resistant buildings, cyclone shelters, buildings on stilts, technology advances, looking at past data for prediction, reduce buildings on low lying areas, good communications, education, knowledge of first aid, dams/resevoirs and supplies.
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What does GIS stand for?
Geographical Information Systems
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What does GIS do?
Uses software to display digital maps to analyse data. It links maps to data bases and spread sheets using a series of layers, the layers can be turned on and off to show different data on the maps. One example is Google Earth.
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How can we predict natural disasters?
GIS, satelittes, looking at past events or patterns, new technologies allowing us to predict the path, using past data to estimate the scale of the impact or a natural disaster in a certain area, measuring the movement of the tectonic plates.
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How do you protect places from natural disasters?
Secure infilstructure, levees, stilted homes, Geographical Information Systems, building away from hazardous areas and not having densly packed buildings, earthquake proof buildings, securing amenities like clean water and emergancy supplies.
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How do you protect people from natural disasters?
Education, evacuation, emergancy supplies, pre-prepared drills, secure infilstructure, shelters, first aid and communication.
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Card 2

Front

How many died in Hurricane Katrina?

Back

1833 in total, 1200 of those had drowned in floods.

Card 3

Front

How fast were the winds in Hurricane Katrina?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How many oil platform were destroyed by Hurricane Katrina?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How many were left homeless or without electricity after Hurricane Katrina?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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