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Green house effect
The atmosphere allows heat from the sun to pass straight through it to warm up the earths surface. However when the earth gives off heat in the form of long wave radiation, some gases such as carbon dioxide are able to absorb it, this warms the earth
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Enhanced green house effect
Natural greenhouse effect becomes more efficient due to human activity e.g. burning fossil fuels
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Types of green house gases and description
Carbon dioxide - 60% of the 'enhanced green house effect, incresed by 30% since 1850. Methane - Very efficient when absorbing heat. Nitrous oxides - Very small concentrates but 300 times more efficient as absorbing heat than carbon dioxide
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Sources of Carbon dioxie
Burning fossil fuels (e.g. oil, gas, coal), car exhausts, deforestation, respiration, volcanic activity
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Sources of methane
Decaying organic material in landfill sites and compost tips, rice farming
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Sources of nitrouse oxides
Car exhausts, power stations producing electricity, sewage treatments
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Pleistocenee period
Geological time period lasting from bout 2 million years ago until 10,000 years ago. Sometimes this period is referred to the ice age
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Glacials
Cold periods of time
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Interglacials
Warm periods of time
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Evidence of global warming
Diaries, paintings, historical records, direct measurements of temperatures (mostly after 1850), photagraphic evidence (e.g.Kilimanjaro glacier, Nepal glacier - 40% of people use the glacier for water), ice cores, early sprint
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Ice cores
Where the water molecules and trapped air can be analysed to detect subtle changes in past temperatures. They do this by extracting ice from low in snow/ice
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Early spring
Over the last 30 years there have been seasonal shifts and spring is coming earlier
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Albedo affect
When the ice reflects the suns radiation
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Thermal expansion
When the sea gets heated, it expands which means the distance it travels onto land becomes larger
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What would happen if global warming did not exist
There would be no life on earth as the atmosphere would be too cold to survive in
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When soloar radiation is sent down to earth from the sun light coloured surfaces... and darker coloured surfaces...
Light coloured surfaces - most solar radiation is sent back into space. Dark coloured surfaces - Most solar radiation is absorbed
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Track of Hurrican Katrina and when it occured
Affected areas were Ontario, Georgia, Mississippi, New Orleans, Kentucky, Alabama, Cuba, Louisiana and more in SE USA. It happened on the 29th August 2005, tropical storm in rich countries
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Track of cyclone Nargis and when it occured
It affected India, Bangladesh, yangon, Sri lanka and Myanmar. It occured on the 2nd of May 2008
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Social effects of Hurrican Katrina
More than 1,800 people died, 3000,000 houses destroyed, 3 million left without electricity, a main route in New Otleans was closed due to a collapsed bridge.
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Social effects of Cyclone Nargis
More than 140,000 people were killed, 450,000 houses were destroyed, 2-3 million people were made homeless, 1,700 schools were destroyed
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Economic effects of Hurricane Katrina
$300 billion of damage, 230,000 jobs were lost due to businesses being destroyed, 30 offshore oil platforms sunk or went missing (increasing the price of fuel), shops in New Orleans were looted by residents in days after the hurricane
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Economic effects of Cyclone Nargis
$4 billion damage, millions of people lost their livelihoods, 200,000 farm animals were killed, Crops were lost, over 40% of food stores were destroyed
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Environmental effects of Hurricane Katrina
The hurrican caused the sea to flood parts of the land and destroyed some costal habitats e.g. sea turtles breeding beaches
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Environmental effects of Cyclone Nargis
Coastal habitats such as mangrove forests were damaged, the salt content of the soil in some areas has increased because of the flooding by the sea water, this means it is more difficult for plants to grow
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Short and long term responses of Hurricane Katrina
Short - During the storm the coastal guard, police, fire service, army and volunteers rescued over 50,000 people, 25,000 were given temporary shelter in Louisiana stadium, Long - $34 billion given for rebuilding
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Short and long term responses of Cyclone Nargis
Short - Burmas government initially refused foreign aid, UN launched a massive appeal to raise money. Long - Burma is relying on the international aid to repair the damage, fewer than 20,000 homes were rebuilt + 500,000 still in temporary shelters
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Preparation for Hurrican Katrina
USA has a sophisticates monotoring system to predict when a hurrican will hit (e.g. satellite images), Mississippi and Louisians delared states of emergency on 26th August, 70-80% New Orleans residents were evacuated before the hurricane reached
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Preparation of cyclone Nargis
Inian and Thai weather agencies warned the Burmese govenment that the cyclone was likely to hit the country. Despite this, Burmese forecasters reported there was little or not risk, no emergency of evacuation plans
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Etreme weather
Weather that is not what is expected normally. It occurs relatively rarely but may last longer than expected. It may break met office records, e.g. droughts, heavy snow, floods, strong winds or thick fog
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How do we prepare for extreme weather
Flood defences along rivers can be improved, education programs can tell the puplic the best ways to cope with a flood, droughs or heatwaves, we have resources and technology to predict and monitor the occurence of storms e.g. using satellites
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Weather warnings
They warn the public and emergncy responders of severe hazardous weather which could have the potntial to cause danger to life or buildings. The warnings include the use of radiios, TV, met office website, social media, smart phone apps, RSS
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Impacts of global warming in australia
Symbiosis, seas getting warmer which can kill the coral with just a 2-3 degree rise (less tourism for coral), If sea levels rise there will be less light + oxygen for coral, climate change increases storms which damages coral
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Impacts of global warming in the Arctic
The polar bears need ice to catch the seals but the ice is melting, 50% decline in polar bears in some areas, all the ice may completely melt
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Impacts of global warming in the UK
Intensive agriculture will be able to spread North, Arctic plants in Scotland may become extinct, Sea levels could rise 26-28cm by 2080 in SE, coastal erosion on sorft rock coastlines, winter weather may provide extra power for wind turbines
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Saturated ground
The soil is already filled up (e.g. with water) and it can't hold any more
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Boscastle flash flood
Afternoon, Monday 16th August 2004, cornish village, 200mm of rainfall in 24 hours, most of it hit in just 5 hours, average rainfall in august is normally 75mm
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Causes of the Boscastle flood
Saturated ground, narrow valley, the landcape upstream acts as a funnel directing vast volumes of water into the village, impermable surfaces (tarmac), narrow river channels in the valley
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Short term and long term effects of Boscastle flood
Short - 58 buildings flooded, 25 businesses destroyed, 84 wrecked cars recovered + 32 lost. Long - £15million for the cost of surroundings, many locals and tourists were traumatised by the event and suffered from increased level of stress
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Future after the Boscastle flood
'flood defence scheme' (£4.5million), drains in the walls of rivers, rivers were made deaper and wider
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Summer 2003 heat wave and drought
More than 20,000 people died after record breaking heatwave in Europe, warmest from up to 500 years, highest temps recorded in Europe, due to high pressure and winds bringing hot tropical air to the UK, max temp of 38.5, result in advanced warning
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Physical impact of the summer 2003 heatwave and drought
Low river flows and lake levels - some rivers fell to their lowest levels in 100 years, bombs from WW2 were revealed, forrest fires, melting glaciers
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Human, environmental and social effects of the summer 2003 heatwave and drought
Human - heat stroke, dehidration, sunburn, air pollution, drowning. Environmental/social - Water supplies were effected, tourism increased, agriculture died, transport, London eye closed, energy
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Immediate responses of the summer 2003 heatwave and drought
France requested aid from Europe, public water supply shortages which lead to a ban on hose pipes, workers altered their hours
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Enhanced green house effect

Back

Natural greenhouse effect becomes more efficient due to human activity e.g. burning fossil fuels

Card 3

Front

Types of green house gases and description

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Sources of Carbon dioxie

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Sources of methane

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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