Geography -1

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Define: Natural Hazard.
Extreme event that causes loss of life or extreme danger to property and creates severe disruption.
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Name two types of Tectonic Natural Hazards.
Earthquake, Volcano.
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Name two types of Atmospheric Natural Hazards.
Tropical Storm, Drought.
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Name two types of Terrestrial/Land Natural Hazards.
Floods, Avalanche.
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What type of Natural Hazard is a Tsunami?
Tectonic.
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Name the 5 layers of the Earth.
Inner core, Outer core, Mantle, Crust, Oceanic crust
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How old is the Earth?
4.6 Billion years old.
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What is the inner heat of the Earth caused by?
Rocks colliding 4.6 Billion years ago.
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What causes plates to move in different directions?
Convection Currents.
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How do Convection Currents work?
Heat rises from the inner core then begins to spread out and sink when crust is reached. The crust is dragged as it spreads and sinks.
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Characteristics of the Crust.
Thinnest layer, solid rock, broken into plates.
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Characteristics of the Mantle.
Thickest layer, full of Magma, Convection currents happen here.
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Characteristics of Inner core.
Solid iron, same temperature as the surface of the sun, densist layer.
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Characteristics of outer core.
Liquid iron.
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Motion of convection currents.
Heat rises, spreads and then sinks.
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Name the two types of crust.
Oceanic and Continental.
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Which is the heavier type of crust?
Oceanic.
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Name the smallest plate.
Nazca.
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Name the largest plate.
Pacific.
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What does destructive mean?
To get rid of something.
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What does constuctive mean?
To create something.
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What is a collision plate?
Where plates hit into eachother and buckle.
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Give an example of a place that falls on a conservative plate boundry.
San Andreas, California.
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How many plates are there?
8.
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Name 3 types of variations in volcanoes.
Activeness, Intensity of eruption, Shape, Amount of magma, Oceanic or continental, Type of ejection (Ash, Lava), Size, Type of margin that causes it.
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Describe the steps that causes a volcano to erupt.
On a destructive plate margin as the oceanic plate subducts it causes magma to rise forming a magma chamber. As the plate subducts more pressure is built up. After extensive pressure the volcano erupts.
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Name 3 ways of predicting an Earthquake.
Measure on a seismograph, Strange animal behaviors, Mini preshocks
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Define Focus.
The point within the earth that the slip or crack occurs.
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Define Epicentre.
Point on the surface of the crust directly above the focus.
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Define Seismic Waves.
Waves of energy released when the earthquale occurs.
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Define Plate Boundary.
Where the tectonic plates are separated.
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What does the Mercali scale measure?
The intensity of the earthquake.
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What does a 6 on the richter scale achieve?
Damage to well build buildings. Earthquake proof buildings left with little to no damage. Approx 150 per year.
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Give an example of an earthquake that was a 6 on the richter scale.
Mexico city - 2013
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How many earthquakes occur per year that are a 2 on the richter scale?
1,300,000
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Give one word to describe a 9 on the richter scale.
Catastrophic
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Give two ways that you could prepare a city for an earthquake.
Educate people on what it is and how to deal with it. Prepare emergency escape routes. Get an earthquake survival kit. Have emergency drills.
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Give two ways to protect a city from an earthquake.
Build earthquake proof buildings and bridges. Use emergency escape routes.
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Name one building that is especially made to withstand earthquakes.
Kobe port tower, Japan, Transamerica Pyramid, San Francisco.
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What sort of a Natural Hazard is a Tropical Storm?
Atmospheric.
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What affects pressure?
Altitude.
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Give the steps of a Hurricane being formed.
1. Sea water is heated to at least 26.5degrees celcius. 2. Massive amounts of evaporation. 3. Low pressure. 4.Heating continues, increased evaporation, pressure lowers. 5. Earths spin (correolas effect)
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When is Hurricane season?
August/September (Sometimes early october)
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Define a drought.
A long period of abnormally dry weather.
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Is a drought a low pressure event or a high pressure event?
High pressure.
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The tropic line at 30degrees N is called..
The tropic of Cancer.
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What are droughts caused by?
Long periods of High pressure. More evaporation that precipitation.
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What is Desertification?
The process by which fertile land becomes desert. Typically as a result of drought or deforestation. Eg, Chad, Burkina Faso
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What are the effects of desertification?
Livestock dies leading to human deaths. Malnutrition in kids, wont grow to the size they're meant to.
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Why are deserts where they are?
Hot air from around the equator rises and then is bent northwards and southwards by the wind. It is then bent to be parallel with the equator by the winds and correolas effect. As the air then falls it heats up and spreads out. All moisture is left
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Name two types of Tectonic Natural Hazards.

Back

Earthquake, Volcano.

Card 3

Front

Name two types of Atmospheric Natural Hazards.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Name two types of Terrestrial/Land Natural Hazards.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What type of Natural Hazard is a Tsunami?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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