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Explain how volcanoes form at constructive plate margins
At a constructive plate boundary, the oceanic crust seperates creating a gap. Volcanoes are formed as magma rises up to fill the gap making it erupt as lava. The layers of cool lava solidifies creating shield volcanos
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Collision Zones
Collision zones form when two continental plates collide. Neither plate is forced under the other, and so both are forced up and form fold mountains.
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Where are supervolcanoes formed?
Formed in hot spots in cracks in the crust of the earth where magma escapes
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Where is yellowstone supervocanoe?
USA; based in North America and the park is one of the largest supervolcanos in the world
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Drop, Cover, Hold
Drop to the floor, cover yourself and hold on- preperation for earthquakes
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Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat- June 1997
Location: Island of Montserrat in the caribbean which is on a destructive plate margin. Cause: Atlantic Plate melting under the caribbean- magma forced up through weak points in the volcano.
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Primary effects of the montserrat eruption
Primary: Pyroclastic flow killed 19 people- burning. Two thirds of homes and farmland destroyed as covered in ash (Homeless) Most of the islands infrastructure was destroyed such as plymouths airport which was in the capital city.
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Secondary effects of the montserrat eruption
Secondary: Cost of rebuilding all that was destroyed. Tourist industry was destroyed as people did not want to go there based on fear and the devestation caused.
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Immediate responses to the montserrat eruption
-8500 People evacuated off of the island to places such as the uk for safety. -Emergency help to provide temporary shelters for the homeless and emergency food sent to farm animals. -British government provided millions of pounds for food/water
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Long term responses to the montserrat eruption
-By 2010, 1500 people returned to the island, increasing the population to 5000 people. -British government built a new port in the north at little bay to bring in supplies and restart the economy; build it back up. -Attempt to reattract tourists
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Volcano eruptions
Positive impacts: Makes soil fertile. -Tourist attractions. -Natural hot springs. Negative Impacts: Global distruption eg; ash clouds distrupt travel. -Unpredictable so different to prepare for.
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Tsunamis
Only happen after earthquakes have taken place
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Indonesia, Banda aceh, Asia 2004, boxing day, 07:58am. 1)
Tsunami took place. Cause: When 2 plates collide and lock out to sea, pressure builds up between the plates due to friction. Pressure released causing plates to jolt. This causes the water above the plates to be displaced- makes a massive tsunami wav
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Indonesia case study 2)
The tsunami travels outwards in all directions at over 800kmph. As the wave reaches the shore it gets shallower causing it to slow down, this causes the wave to rise by 10-20m and then break
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Indonesia earthquake effects:
Hit by a powerful tsunami in the indian ocean, the highest on the rictor scale with a magnitude of 9.0, hitting 12 countries mainly affecting Indonesia, where 236,169 people were killed or missing. 400,000 people lost their jobs
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Indonesia earthquake effects 2
1500 settlements destroyed leading to homelessness. Tourists resorts hit with 1700 killed or missing-reputation ruined and so tourist industry collapsed due to fright and devestation. Families dead- nobody could identify bodies. Arable farmland gone
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Indonesia Responses- Immediate
-Clean Water, food and shelter were sent by an international charity campaign, along with key countries eg; US. -Money given such as $7 bilion worldwide donations used to begin cleanup operations and reconstruction of damaged community. Food sent
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Indonesia Responses- Long term
-Tsunami warning system set up in the Indian ocean to send messages to neighbouring countries. -Bellas, megaphones and speakers have been installed in coastal destinations to provide warnings and to starve off future disasters
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Environmental Refugee
People forced to move away from their home because of changes in the environment or climatic conditions such as dought, flooding and deforestation
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Maldives (Population of 400,000)
Part of an island chain in Asia-In indian ocean in the south of India
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Causes of rising sea levels
-Global Warming. -Ice melting because of rising global temperatures= water in the sea from melted ice gets water and so expands causing rising sea levels
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Global impacts of rising sea levels
-Storm Stulges. -Loss of agricultural land due to flooding. -•Many small islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans will be lost under water.
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Global impacts of rising sea levels
-Netherlands is at risk because 27% of the nation is below sea level. -Cities such as London and new york will have to spend billions on flood defense schemes
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Economic impacts of rising sea levels
-Jobs in the tourist industry will be lost and will be hit by mass unemployment.
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Environmental impacts of rising sea levels
-Coral reefs will die as they bleach due to deep water and lack of sunlight. -Ecosystem connected to reefs will die out = marine life. -Risk that entire Island chain will be lost under water.
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Social impacts of rising sea levels
-Younger generation will leave the Maldives. -400,000 people forced out of homes=environmental refugees
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Political impacts of rising sea levels
-Will need international aid to cope with the rise in sea levels
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Coastal Managment
Sea Wall: Protects cliffs and buildings (expensive). -Groynes: Stops sea removing sand (Exposes other areas of the coastline) -Rock Armour: Rocks absorb wave energy (Expensive)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Collision zones form when two continental plates collide. Neither plate is forced under the other, and so both are forced up and form fold mountains.

Back

Collision Zones

Card 3

Front

Formed in hot spots in cracks in the crust of the earth where magma escapes

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

USA; based in North America and the park is one of the largest supervolcanos in the world

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Drop to the floor, cover yourself and hold on- preperation for earthquakes

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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