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What is the difference between oceanic crust and continental crust?
Oceanic crust is newer and more dense,so it can sink. It can also be renewed and destroyed unlike continental crust.
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What is Destructive plate margin?
One plate sinking beneath another plate is subduction and the meeting of two plates of continental crust is collision.
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What is Constructive plate margin?
When plates move apart, so fractures form between the plates, so magma forces its way to the cracks to form a volcano
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What is Conservative margin?
When plates are sliding past each other, they are moving in a similar direction and get stuck, eventually the built-up pressure is released causing an eathquake
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How are fold mountains formed?
Fold mountains form along both destructive and collision plate boundaries. When two plates are seperated the sediments become compressed,when the plates move together again the rocks create layer and crumble,then eventually it appears over sea level.
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What is the contrast between composite and shield volcanoes?
C.V has a steep slope and narrow base with a secondary cones with layers of thick lava and ash, eruptions are infrequent but voilent. S.V have wide base and a gently slope, with runny lava and little ash, erupts frquent but not voilent
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How are fold mountains used?
Farming, Mining, Hydroelectric power and Tourism
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What is a supervolcano?
Mega colossal volcano that erupts 1,000 km3 of material e.g. Yellowstone, USA erupted 630,000 years ago, now a tourist attraction for its Norris Geyser and geothermal features
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Where does earthquakes occur?
Deep within the crust is a focus, the above it is a epicentre radiating out from the point is a shock wave (primary SW & secondary SW)
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What is used to measure earthquakes?
Seismomographs record the extent of the shaking. The richter scale measures the strength of the earthquake. Mercalli scale measures the effects using a scale from 1-12 using descriptions of the resulting damage
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What are the three P's?
Prediction, Protection and Preparation
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How are tsunamis formed?
Usually triggered by earthquakes, where the crust shiftng is the primary effect the displacement of water above the curst starts a tsunami.
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What is the El nino effect?
periodic blip in the global climatic characteristics, having an impact on the pattern of rainfalls and development of tropical storm
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What is the Pleistocene period?
Period of some 2 million years when global temperatures irregulated considerably
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Name two examples of ice sheets
Antarctica and Greenland
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What causes glaciers to move?
The input of accumulation (snow) and the output (melting) where it is likely to occur near the snout. Glacial budget is the balance between the input and outputs e.g. South Cascade Glacier, USA
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What processes control in glacial environment?
Freeze-thaw weathering, Glacial erosion (including Abrasion & Plucking), Glacial movement, Glacial transportation and Depsoition (including bulldozing & hummocks)
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What are the distinctive landforms resulting from glacial processes?
Corries, Arete, Pyramidal peak, Glacial trough, Truncated spur, Hanging valley, Ribbon lake, Long profile, Lateral moraine, Ledial morain, Terminal moraine and Drumlin e.g.Nant Ffrancon valley, Wales
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What is the formation of a corrie?
a) snow collects in hollows, b) snow compacts to ice, c) ice moves under gravity, lubricated by meltwater, d) ice rotates to lip, e) abrasion deepens corrie, f) plucking steepens back and sides, g) corrie lochan may fill hollow.
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What are the responses to climate change in lower-level resorts?
Tourists are transported by bus to higher-level resort for skiiing, artifical snow is cannoned onto the slope, resorts have had to re-invest themselves, and plans to build a new skii lifts to link resorts
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What are avalanches?
Masses of snow, ice and rocks moving downhill at a speed. There are two types of avalanches: loose snow avalanche (loose, powerdy snow), and slab avalanches (large slabs of ice and snow carrying rocks and trees)
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What are the causes of avalanches?
Heavy snowfall, steep slope, tree removal, temperature rise, heavy rainfall and human factors
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What are the types of wave found at coast?
constuctive wave and destructive wave
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Which land processes shape the coastline?
Weathering, Mass movement (including rockfall, landslip, mudflow and rotational slip)
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What are the marine processes that shape the coastline?
Coastal erosion (including Hydraulic power, corrasion, abrasion, solution and attrition), Coastal transportation and Coastal deposition
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What is Long Shore Drift?
The movement of sediments on a beach determined by the direction of wave approach. It moves along the beach in a zig-zag pattern, using swash and backwash.
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What are the landform characteristics resulting from erosion?
Headlands, Bays, Cliffs, wave-cut platforms, caves, arches and stacks
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How are Headlands and bays formed?
When the sea attacks a section of coast with repeatedly with bands of hard and soft rock. The bands of soft rock, such as sand and clay, erode more quickly than those of more resistant rock, e.g. chalk, leaving a section of land
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Give an example of a coastal erosion
Swanage, Dorset
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What are the landform characteristics resulting from erosion?
Beaches, Spits and Bars
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Give an example of coastal deposition
Hurst castle, Hampshire
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How can coastlines be managed?
Shoreline management plan, Hard engineering e.g. sea walls, groynes. Soft engineering e.g.Beach nourishment, Marsh creation. And managed retreat, which is the allowing of controlled flooding of low-lying coastal areas
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What are salt marshes?
Areas of frequent flooding in low-lying coastal wetlands.It is important for its vegetation success, where the condition is less harsh so there it is rich in plants, birds and animals
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is Destructive plate margin?


One plate sinking beneath another plate is subduction and the meeting of two plates of continental crust is collision.

Card 3


What is Constructive plate margin?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is Conservative margin?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


How are fold mountains formed?


Preview of the front of card 5
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