Geography

Hydraulic Action
The sheer force of flowing water washes away any loose material on the bed and banks.
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Erosion
The wearing away of land.
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Abrasion (aka. corrasion)
Stones carried in the river are washed into the bed and banks, wearing them away.
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Solution (aka. Corrosion)
The slightly acidic river water dissolves rocks made of calcium carbonate.
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Attrition
Stones collide together and are broken down becoming smaller and rounder.
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Traction
Stones are rolled along the river bed by the force of flowing water.
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Saltation
Small stones are bounced along the river bed by flowing water.
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Suspension
Particles of silt and clay float and are carried along in the flowing water.
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Solution
Some minerals dissolve in water. Limestone for example slowly dissolves.
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Drainage Basin
An area of land drained by a river and its tributaries.
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Meander
Is a curve in a river formed by sideways (lateral) erosion.
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Hard Engineering
Uses machinery or defenses constructed by people to control natural processes.
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Soft engineering.
Works with the environment to control natural processes.
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The greenhouse effect
The natural process by which the atmosphere traps heat from the sun.
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Global Warming
Describes and explains the pattern of increasing global temperatures.
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Lava Flow
Molten rock flowing down the sides of a volcano. Hot basaltic lava from shield volcanoes flows quickly.
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Lahars
Mudflows, a mixture of ash and water from melted snow and ice, travel at great speed down the mountain, making evacuation difficult
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Dust and ash clouds
Ash thrown high into the atmosphere shuts out the sun and when it settles, can completely bury buildings and crops.
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Lava bombs
Large pieces of rock and ash are thrown into the air.
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Pyroclastic Flow
Burning clouds of gas and ash, with temperatures up to 1000.C, rush down the mountain, scorching everything in their path.
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Focus
The source of the shock wave of an earthquake.
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Primary impacts.
These are the immediate consequences of the event. (eg. a mudflow or tsunami)
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Secondary impacts
These are the consequences which result from the primary impacts (eg. buildings collapsing lead to people being homeless) Secondary effects can last years.
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Seisometers
Measure the increase in earthquake activity that occurs before a volcanic eruption.
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Population density
The number of people living in a square kilometre.
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Birth rate
The number of live births per 1000 people per year.
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Death rate
The number of deaths per 1000 people per year.
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Fertility
The average number of children in a family.
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Globalisation
When human activities take place on a worldwide scale, meaning we increasingly live in a 'global village'.
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Interdependence
When countries are linked together economically, socially, culturally and politically
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Trading bloc
A group of countries that work together to remove barriers and improve trade between member countries.
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Imports
Goods purchased from abroad and brought into a country.
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Exports
Goods purchased by other countries and sent to them.
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Tariffs
Taxes imposed on imports.
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Quotas
Limits on the amount of goods imported.
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Subsidies
Grants of money given by governments to maintain the price of a specific product (eg. milk)
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MDG Goal 1
Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger.
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MDG Goal 2
Achieve universal primary education.
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Millennium Development Goals (MDG's)
Goals set in 2000 by the United Nations to promote human development.
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MDG Goal 3
Promote gender equality.
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MDG Goal 4
Reduce child mortality
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MDG Goal 5
Improve maternal health.
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MDG Goal 6
Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases.
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MDG Goal 7
Ensure environmental sustainability.
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MDG Goal 8
Develop a global partnership for development.
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The Human Development Index (HDI)
Uses life expectancy, literacy, years in education and income per person to measure development on a scale of 1 to 10.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The wearing away of land.

Back

Erosion

Card 3

Front

Stones carried in the river are washed into the bed and banks, wearing them away.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The slightly acidic river water dissolves rocks made of calcium carbonate.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Stones collide together and are broken down becoming smaller and rounder.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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