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  • Created by: emma why
  • Created on: 11-03-14 10:16
What is Taiwan classed as and what are the hazards it faces?
Multi-hazard location with earthquakes (European and Pacific boundary, 10000s year) landslides and tropical cyclones.
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What is Taiwan hit by each year?
Typhoons which can generate a metre of rain in day, equivilant of year rainfall in UK falling in 48 hours
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What is an example of a landslide event in Taiwan?
September 1999 earthquake, rock fell equivalent 100mn family car in one area - village central Taiwain
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What is the importance of spatial factor in landslides?
In September 1999 landslide in Taiwan, 39 killed most buried alive but those just on edge landslide safe.
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What is a clear difference between the ways in which MEDCs and LEDCs exploit disasters?
Taiwan 1999 survivors whose home travelled 100m down mountain with them in had previously had good living. Stall selling refreshments to disaster tourists. CONTRAST MT ST HELENS
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How can landslides in Taiwan be used to aid management elsewhere?
Has virtually every type of landslide, what is learnt there by geologists such as David Petley can be utilised elsewhere
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How does water contribute to the landslide hazard?
Water builds up pressure. Hydrostatic pressure reduces friction and helps raise materials up. Forces for example siltstone and rubble apart so rubble is able to slide.
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What is the context of the Vargas Mudslides?
Rain indundated northern coastal aresa; most prolonged at Cordillera de la Costa mountain range, short distance from resort towns.
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What happened in the Vargos mudslides?
Ground saturated at 8pm December 15 1999, muddy water down mountain into valley - first warning was sound of boulders. Mud and rock over 50ft high moving at 40mph. Debris such as cars add to impact
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How significant was the Vargas tragedy?
Estimated death toll makes tragedy worst of its kind in Venezuela in 20th century
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What was an exacerbating factor in the Vargas mudslides?
Much of Vargas and neighbouring state virtually cut off; 1000s rescuers tried to access but had few helicopters. Population boom. Some blamed previous politicians. Up to 70% population in coastal areas, gov. try to encourage movement.
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What was Mr Charvez accused of in the Vargas mudslides?
Failing to execute evacuation plan as military and police focused on 15 December referendum on new constitution. At time remained firm in defence: "They could shoot me if I had any personal responsibility in this."
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What is an issue with the census in Vargas?
During first few days Red Cross estimated death toll at 50,000, revised down to 30,000 - though many washed out to sea or buried in mud it is hard to know how many in country generally.
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Which group was blamed by some for the Vargas mudslides?
Previous politicians for size of disaster as allowed shanty towns on sides of mountains.
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How many were left homeless by the Vargas mudslides?
150,000 up to
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What proportion of the State of Vargas was affected by the disaster?
Over 70%
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How many were dying or dead as a result of the Vargas mudslides?
30,000 dying or dead
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What was the economic damage estimated at?
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What was the government response to looting in Vargas?
Martial law for over a year
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What was the environmental impact of the Vargas mudslides?
Significantly altered more than 60km of Vargas coast
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What hindered emergency relief
Damaged infrastructuretPAH
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What did the Pan american Health Organisation (PAHO) set aside to help those with health issues?
$25,000 as well as setting up a mental health programme
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Where did most of the population of Vargas go after the tragedy?
Evacuated as public services disappeared and no supplies of food and water for months. Troops helped evacuate 70,000 and 100,000 made own way away.
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What wsa President Chavez's response to US Navy offer of help?
Refused entry as scared that if US troops entered his oil rich country then would be invaded
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What did Chavez ask those who were not affected to do?
Adopt a family!
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If there was a landslide of teh Canary Islands (La Palma) what is the potential impact?
Landslide 100 times that of Mount St Helens and faster than a Ferrari
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What would happen if there was a landslide at La Palma and the volcano fell in one block?
W. Europe, Brazil and USA affected by tsunami
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How were the Canary Islands created?
Evolved from Mid-Atlantic Ridge submarine volcanoes
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What evidence of previous landslides is there at the Canary Islands?
At least 12 giant landslides on sea floor; as with Viaont Dam cause displacement of water
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What are the criticisms of the La Palma megatsunami?
Recent findings hold doubt of whether previous landslides happened in one stage or multiple - producing smaller tsunami waves. Some doubt scale of tsunami.
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When was there a landslide in El Salvador, Central America?
January 13th 2001
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Where are some living ten years on from the El Salvador landslide?
Disused buildings with fear of collapse and fear of a repeated landslide
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What caused the El Salvador landslide?
5.33pm earthquake with 25 mile deep focus of 7.7 on Richter Scale 65 miles off coast of El Salvador. Nazcar and S. American plate.
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What was one of the worst affected neighbourhoods?
Las Colinas, ten miles west of the country's capital San Salvador
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What kind of spatial impact do debris flows have?
Spatial - localised impact
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What is a consequence of the LEDC nature of El Salvador?
Even if there was legislation might not have been followed; rescuers had to use bare hands
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What was the impact of religion on the disaster's impact?
90 churches across country collapsed, killing those who rushed to pray for deliverance
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What was a temporal factor that influenced responses to the 2001 El Salvador earthquake?
Before mobile phones were widespread so could not contact. Power and telephone lines down in Las Colinas so took several hours to see outside effects (e.g. buildings in San Miguel damaged)
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What was blamed for the El Salvador landslides in urban areas?
Residential developers who had stripped land of trees which may have slowed deadly landslides. Authorities turn blind eye.
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How many homes were damaged and how many destroyed in the El Salvador landslides?
4000 destroyed and 1600 damaged
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How many died in El Salvador due to the earthquake adn landslides combined?
944 (shows that landslides are often viewed in conjunction w/ trigger rather than separate)
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How many were known as dead or missing in Las Calinas on the first day, according to the Red Criss/.
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What was one estimate of the total number of slides?
16,000 though it is unclear how this figure was arrived at and therefore may be wildly inaccurate
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Was a State of Emergency declaerd in El Salvador?
Yes, appealed for help also and Mexico was the first to respond.
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When was there a deadly avalanche in Peru?
Yungay, 1970
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What is the context of the Yungay avalanche?
One of the most cataclysmic avalanches in recorded history, earthquake that triggered it destroyed and damaged buildings across area larger than Belgium and Netherlands combined.
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What were exacerbating factors in Yungay?
Attitudes of people towards the disaster. In 1962 two American scientists reported slab of rock undermined by glacier, threatening to fall - reported in Espreso newspaper and they were ordered to face prison or retract. American scientists fled count
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Why do people live in hazardous areas? BEHAVIOURAL
Considers that environmental hazards are the result of natural events with people putting themselves at risk by living in dangerous locations
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Why do people live in hazardous areas? STRUCTURALIST
Structuralist school of thought stresses constraints on (poor) people by prevailing social and political system of the country - prevented from living in better areas
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What does the structuralist school of thought provide a link between?
Environmental hazards and the underdevelopment and economic dependency of many developing countries.
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How much rock, snow and ice broke away in the Yungay avalanche?
10 million cubic metres
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What triggered the Yungay avalanche?
Undersea earthquake off coast of Casma and Chimbote. Magnitude 8.0 earthquake with Nazca plate subducted by South American plate
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How fast did the avalanche travel?
More than 120 miles per hour
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How bigdid the avalanche weigh by the time it reached the valley three minutes later?
80 million cubic metres
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What did the earthquake do to the glacier on the north face of Mount Huascaran?
Destabilised the glacier
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What was the impact on Yungay?
Wiped out town and most of residents; only 350 survived.
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What was the impact of avalanche on smaller village of Ranrahirca and city of Huaraz?
Huaraz reduced to rubble and Ranrahirca buried for second time in decade.
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Why did 300 children survive the Yungay disaster?
Were at circus at stadium on high ground and oustkirt town, clow led to higher ground when earthquake struck.
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What was an issue that contributed to deaths in Yungay?
So many tried to go to the church to pray- the cemetery would have been safer.
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What has the Peruvian government forbidden?
Excavation of area
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Where is Yungay now?
Rebuilt a few kilometres away
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What was declared in 2000?
In memory of victims of deadliesst seismic disaster in Latin America, May 31st is Natural Disaster Education and Reflection Day
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Card 2


What is Taiwan hit by each year?


Typhoons which can generate a metre of rain in day, equivilant of year rainfall in UK falling in 48 hours

Card 3


What is an example of a landslide event in Taiwan?


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Card 4


What is the importance of spatial factor in landslides?


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Card 5


What is a clear difference between the ways in which MEDCs and LEDCs exploit disasters?


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