Geography

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  • Created by: Katie_
  • Created on: 17-02-14 14:50
Hot Arid Buildings
-Solar panels to generate electricity -Light colours to reflect heat -Open spaces to aid the movement of air -Covered external spaces -Shaded windows to reduce magnifying effect of glass -Large windows to help air circulation
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Polar Buildings
-Small windows to reduce heat loss -Built on stilts to stop permafrost melt -Double glazed windows -Sloping roof to stop build-up of snow -Fuel supply (wood) stored beneath building
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Explain one way in which fauna has adapted to living in areas of extreme climates.
Animals living in hot arid places feed at dawn and dusk as the air is cool.
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Explain one way in which flora has adapted to areas of extreme climates.
During drought some plants shed all of their leaves to prevent water loss through transpiration.
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Describe how people cope with an extreme climate. (Siberia)
-They keep warm by heating wood and coal in their homes. -They keep warm by having central heating. -They wear fur coats, thermals and seal skins for insulation -For farming, they cope by fishing and maintaining a high fish diet.
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Describe how people cope with an extreme climate. (Siberia) (continued)
-The houses they build are built with double or triple glazing windows, small windows to reduce heat loss, sloping roofs to stop build-up of snow and built on stilts to stop permafrost melt.
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Describe one problem faced by people living in areas of extreme climates.
People living in hot arid places can experience dehydration and this can lead to death.
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How Inuit people are adapted to survive in their environment
-Their diet is the fat of meat and seals, rich in iron and vitamin A, which helps them survive the cold -Their clothes and shoes are designed for the Arctic -Inuit people use dog-sledges for transport on the ice
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How inuit people are adapted to survive in their environment (continued)
-Most of the liquids they consume come from marine mammals and fish so contain a high proportion of unsaturated fatty acid, which hardly raise the cholesterol level at all -Inuit people build shelters to protect themselves from the cold weather
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How inuit people are adapted to survive in their environment (continued)
The average Inuit’s body has become stockier, their hands and feet smaller and their face rounded and flatter. All these characteristics reduce heat loss.
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3 types of desert plants
-Succulence, e.g. Cactus -Drought Tolerance -Drought Avoidance
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Succulence, e.g. Cactus
-They absorb water quickly -Stems and leaves are waxy, this reduces transpiration -During drought they stop growing -They have the potential to store water very quickly and for a long time
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Drought Tolerance
-During drought they shed all of their leaves to prevent water loss through transpiration -They have very deep roots which go deep into the soil or rocks which allow them to get underground water.
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Drought Avoidance
-They do not attempt to survive the drought season -They only survive for one season -Their seeds last years.
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How the cultures and values (way of life) of people living in extreme climates can be considered unique
-They are very independent and have to live off the land -They have to live off what they have -they use fire to drive out animals for hunting, this is because they have to clear wood and allow grass to grow
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More on how the cultures and values (way of life) of people living in extreme climates can be considered unique
-Their customs and stories are spoken and never written. This is used as entertainment as they do not have electricity and their stories are never written due to the fact that they do not have the equipment for this
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More on how the cultures and values (way of life) of people living in extreme climates can be considered unique
-They build dams across rivers to catch fish, and to make pools where birds would gather -They make a wide range of natural dyes from rocks and local vegetation -They know how to find water and food during extreme droughts, such as witchetty grubs
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Threats to the aboriginal people in Australia?
-Dehydration -Animals killing them -Lack of food -Out-migration because of limited job opportunities -Cultural dilution through tourism -Land degradation through poor land management, e.g. Land clearing for agriculture
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More Threats to the aboriginal people in Australia?
-Pollution from resource exploitation, e.g. Mining
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Benefits of tourism
-Income from admission fees goes to the Anangu community -The new Uluru Aboriginal cultural centre educates visitors about aboriginal people. Its displays include photos, spoken histories, aboriginal language learning, videos and artefacts
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More benefits of tourism
-There are good outdoor walks, guided walks and cultural sessions – all led by aboriginal people
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Problems of tourism
-Aboriginal culture can be exploited to provide entertainment. Paintings are produced to suit visitors’ tastes, rather than express culture -The Anangu have no part in the management or development of the tourist resort where most visitors stay
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More problems of tourism
-Tourists may leave without learning a thing about aboriginal culture or beliefs. People come for the sunset. And perhaps to climb the rock, even though Uluru is sacred. It’s against Anangu spiritual beliefs to climb Uluru
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How can the environments be local actions?
-Local farmers were encouraged to build diguettes to form barriers to erosion -A diguette is a line of stones, laid along the contours of gently sloping farmland -. It slows down rainwater and gives it a chance to soak into the hard ground.
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How can the environments be local actions? (continued)
-The diguettes also trap soil, which builds up behind the stones. Soil erosion is therefore reduced.
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How can the environment be managed by global actions?
-Climate change could reduce African crop yields by 10% or more -Maize production might fall by 33% -In Africa, 70% of the working population relies on farming to make a living
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How can the environment be managed by global actions? (continued)
. Farming contributes 40% to the Gross Domestic Product of Africa as a whole -Climate change is something that all countries should discuss because if it gets any worse, the whole world could be affected.
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Explain the local actions which have been taken to help achieve sustainability in Iceland
-Geothermal energy has been used to create sustainable energy -Magma heated groundwater is used for heating and electricity generation -Farmers are no longer dependent on the success of one crop or its price at market.
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Explain the local actions which have been taken to help achieve sustainability in Iceland (continued)
-. Using geothermal energy, farmers are able to heat and light greenhouses allowing vegetables and fruits to be grown throughout the year.
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What local actions have been taken in hot arid environments? (Sahel region of Africa)
-Soil conservation -Build hand-dug wells -Rainwater harvesting -Solar panels and reduce deforestation; they provide clean energy -Built a dam as wells did not work to conserve water and help irrigation - Used fertilisers that were organic
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Consevation Farming
-Conservation farming is different from other methods of growing food because it is a form of multi-cropping, where farmers plant several species instead of just one -Crop yields often increase by 10 times
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Consevation Farming (continued)
-This is a method that traps moisture, improves soil quality, minimises soil erosion and resists drought -This method is well suited to Africa's land as17% of Zambia’s population is HIV positive, they are usually to weak to work
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Global Actions (Kyoto agreement)
-Set up to reduce CO2 emissions -Most developed countries committed themselves to targets for cutting their greenhouse gas emissions
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Achievements of the Kyoto Summit
-Lots of countries have met their targets and reduced their emissions
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Failings of the Kyoto Summit
-The world’s biggest polluter did not sign up to the treaty -The total world’s CO2 emissions have gone up -Lots of countries, especially developed countries, have not met their targets
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Polar Buildings

Back

-Small windows to reduce heat loss -Built on stilts to stop permafrost melt -Double glazed windows -Sloping roof to stop build-up of snow -Fuel supply (wood) stored beneath building

Card 3

Front

Explain one way in which fauna has adapted to living in areas of extreme climates.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Explain one way in which flora has adapted to areas of extreme climates.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Describe how people cope with an extreme climate. (Siberia)

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

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