Geography Unit 1A

  • Created by: Amy_5639
  • Created on: 05-04-18 09:41
1.What is a natural hazard?
A natural process which could cause death, injury or disruption to humans, or destroy property and possessions
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2.Give three factors affecting hazard risk
1.Vulnerability-more people in an area exposed to natural hazards=hazard risk is higher 2.Capacity to cope-HICs can cope better as more developed and can repair damage after>lower the threat 3.Nature of natural hazards-type, frequency, magnitude
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3.Name the type of plate boundary where two plates are moving towards each other.
Destructive margins
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4. Name the type of plate boundary where two plates are moving sideways against each other.
Conservative margins
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5.Why do volcanoes form at destructive plate boundaries?
The oceanic plate moves down into the mantle where its destroyed. magma then rises through the cracks and erupts onto the surface (lava) forming a volcano
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6.At which types of plate boundaries can earthquakes occur?
All three types- destructive, constructive, conservative
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7.Give two primary and two secondary effects of a volcanic eruption.
Primary effects=buildings and roads are destroyed by lava flows, water supplies are contaminated. Secondary effects=landslides and mudflows, people are left homeless
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8a.Give an example of an earthquake in a wealthier part of the world.
Japan Earthquake 2011, magnitude 9.0, killed 16,000 people
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8b.Describe two effects of the earthquake and two responses to it.
Effects=45,000 buildings were destroyed, 16,000 deaths. Responses=tsunami warning was issued saving many lives, 128 countries offered aid, from blankets and food, to search dogs and military transport
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9a.Give an example of an earthquake in a less wealthy part of the world.
Haiti Earthquake 2010, magnitude 7.6, killed 316,000 people
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9b.Describe two effects of the earthquake and two responses to it.
Effects=4000 inmates escaped from prison, 1 in 5 jobs were lost. Responses=Eu gave $330 million to Haiti to pay of debts, Dominican Republic offered support and accepted refugees
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10.Why do people live in areas prone to tectonic hazards?
Always lived there with friends and family, employed in the area, confident of support from their government
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11.Describe how management can reduce the effects of tectonic hazards.
Monitoring-seisomenters and lasers monitor earth movements. Prediction-seisometers warnings give time for evacuation. Protection-stronger buildings, automatic shut off switches. Planning-emergency supplies, plan evacuation routes, educate people
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12.How does global atmospheric circulation lead to high and low pressure belts?
Wind are part of global atmospheric circulation loops. These loops have warm rising air which creates a low pressure belt and cool falling air which creates a high pressure belt
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13.Describe the distribution of tropical storms.
Most occur between 5 and 30 degrees north and south of the equator, northern hemisphere over the Pacific
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14.What conditions are required for a tropical storm to develop?
Sea temperature 27 degrees or higher, low wind shear
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15.In what direction does a tropical storm move? Which way does it rotate?
They move towards the West because of easterly winds, the Earth's rotation deflects the paths of the winds
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16.What can cause a tropical storm to lose strength?
When they move over land or cooler water because the energy supply from the warm water is cut off
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17.Describe two characteristics of the eye of the tropical storm.
Very low pressure and a high temperature
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18.How might climate change affect tropical storms?
Sea temperatures will rise above 27 degrees so more places in the world may experience tropical storms
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19.Describe four primary and four secondary effects of tropical storms.
Effects=buildings destroyed,flooded areas, sewage overflows, roads and railways are damaged. Responses=Evacuation, temporary shelters,repair homes or rehouse people, improve building regulations
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20.Using an example, describe the immediate and long-term responses to a tropical storm.
Typhoon Haiyan- immediate responses=international charities sent emergency supplies, UK and USA sent diggers to clear the ground. Long-term responses=rebuilt buildings, community based disease prevention
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21.List the types of extreme weather that can be experienced in the UK.
Rain, wind, snow and ice, thunderstorms, hailstorms, droughts, heatwaves
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22.Give one piece of evidence for the weather becoming more extreme in the UK.
Temperatures have become more extreme, it's raining more, major flooding occurs often
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23a.Give an example of one extreme UK weather event and explain what caused it.
St Jude-started as a depression, headed East helped by a strong jet stream
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23b.Describe the social, economic and environmental impacts of the extreme weather event.
Social=Traffic damaged, no electricity. Economic=Infrastructure damage £0.3 billion damage. Environmental=trees uprooted, flooding
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24.What is the Quaternary period?
The most recent geological time period, spanning from about 2.6 million years ago to the present day
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25.Give four sources of evidence for climate change over the Quaternary period.
Ice and sediment cores, tree rings, pollen analysis, temperature records
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26.What are the natural factors that can cause climate change?
Orbital changes, volcanic activity, solar output
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27.What is the greenhouse effect?
Where greenhouse gases, like carbon dioxide and methane, absorb ongoing heat, so less is lost to space.
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28.How can human activities increase the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere?
Cement production, burning fossil fuels, deforestation, farming
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29.Give one effect of climate change on the environment.
Some habitats are being damaged or destroyed due to climate change-species that are specially adapted to these areas may become extinct
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30.How might alternative energy production reduce the cause of climate change?
Replacing fossil fuels with nuclear power and renewable energy will reduce climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions from power stations, also more offshore wind farms are being built and tidal power projects are being planned
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31.What are four mitigation strategies to reduce the causes of climate change?
Planting trees, carbon capture, international agreements, alternative energy production
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32.What are three adaptations to changes caused by climate change?
Changing agricultural systems, managing water supply, coping with rising sea levels
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

2.Give three factors affecting hazard risk

Back

1.Vulnerability-more people in an area exposed to natural hazards=hazard risk is higher 2.Capacity to cope-HICs can cope better as more developed and can repair damage after>lower the threat 3.Nature of natural hazards-type, frequency, magnitude

Card 3

Front

3.Name the type of plate boundary where two plates are moving towards each other.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

4. Name the type of plate boundary where two plates are moving sideways against each other.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

5.Why do volcanoes form at destructive plate boundaries?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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