Geography Unit 1 (Mia)

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Is the inner core a solid or liquid?
Solid
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How thick is the crust?
0-100km
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Describe the constructive plate boundary
Convection currents in the asthenosphere move the tectonic plates. Oceanic plates move apart allowing magma to rise
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What case study occurred on the constructive plate boundary?
Eyjafjallajokull eruption, Iceland 2010
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Describe the destructive plate boundary
Convection currents in the asthenosphere move the tectonic plates. As the plates meet, the oceanic plate is more dense which means it sinks, melting into the subduction zone. The friction between the plates rubbing causes earthquakes
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Evidence of plate tectonic theory being accurate?
Shape of continents portrayed as being a puzzle, mountain ranges link across continents
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describe the conservative plate boundary
Convection currents in the asthenosphere move the tectonic plates. Movement causes friction leading to a sudden release
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Describe one method which can be used to predict when a volcano is likely to erupt.
Ground deformations which is where people search around the area for any fissures or movement in the rocks to help determine the next eruption
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How are volcanoes measured?
Seismic activity - measuring movement. Gas emissions - measuring amount of sulphur dioxide. Ground deformation - searching for any fissures or movement
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2 types of volcanoes and their properties?
Shield - flows quickly, gentle slopes, very fluid (Mount Loa, Hawaii). Composite cone - very viscous, flows slowly and is sticky (Mount Pinatubo, Phillipines).
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Whats a hotspot?
An area of persistsent volcanic activity
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Ejafjallajokull primary impacts
Farmland animals scared due to thunder noises, trees and buildings damaged by hot ash,
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Eyjafjallajokull secondary impacts
700 farmers had to evacuate, 95,000 flights cancelled, glaciers melted causing floods
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Japan Earthquake, 2011 response
238 emergency teams sent, shelters set up, disaster relief mission
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Japan Earthquake, 2011 primary impacts
Thousands of houses destroyed, flooding, 4 trains swept from tracks.
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Japan Earthquake, 2011 secondary impacts
Half million living in shelters, difficult for families to reunite, costs money to repair damage
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Examples of preparation
Regular practice drills, services trained, emergency and evacuation plans
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Examples of mitigation for an LEDC
Strengthen walls, use lightweight bricks and reduce weight of roof
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Examples of mitigation for an MEDC
Shock absorbers, cross bracing preventing floors collapsing, deep foundations keep building standing
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2 ways to look at how climate has changed?
Tree rings - the bigger the ring the warmer the year. Ice cores - measure the co2 concentration which are trapped in ice
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Evidence of climate change?
Historical paintings, diaries, fossils, tree rings, ice cores
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Natural causes of climate change (long term)
Sunspots, orbital changes, natural greenhouse effect
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Natural causes of climate change (short term)
Asteroid collisions, volcanic activity
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Effects of little ice age
Failure of agriculture, transportation changes, ice in June, fairs held on ice
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Megafauna have become extinct due to:
Their inability to adapt, humans over hunting them
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Why does UK's current climate vary?
Earth's tilt - incoming radiation more diluted so colder in North, Relief rainfall - predominant wind picks up moisture from air which is forced to rise over mountains, which then condenses forming clouds, North Atlantic Drift, warm ocean high temps
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One challenge UK is likely to face due to climate change?
Tropical crops will grow bringing more income for farmers
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Impact of climate change on LEDC (Bangladesh)
Spread of diseases such as Cholera, crops washed away - no income, two thirds of country undergroud, 6,000 killed
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Management of climate change on LEDC
Faruk's fish - adapting farming techniques, Pumpkins - NGOs help teach people how to grow them; cheap
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Future trends of Global Warming?
Increase in temperature - 2 degrees Celcius rise by 2050
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Global factors affecting location of biomes?
Latitude, Wind + pressure belts
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Local factors affecting location of biomes?
Geology, Relief Rainfall, Continentality, Altitude
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How are humans degrading biosphere?
Deforestation, Mining, Cattle Ranching, Logging, Road building
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Sustainable management of the biosphere?
FSC - Forest Stewardship Council. 50 countries, responsible to manage world forests
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How do the 'spheres link?
Atmosphere - Evaporation + stores water, Lithosphere - Rocks + soil, Biosphere - Stores water
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Water quantity in the Sahel
1) Plants hold water and bind soil together 2) Plants taken away... 3) Loose top soil, no moisture, cracked baked hard soil
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Causes of desertification
Human: overgrazing, deforestation, overabstraction. Physcial: unreliable rainfall, climate change
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Adaptations to desertification
Dams - keep river water in area in dry seasons. Organic fertilisers - helping plants grow with less water.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How thick is the crust?

Back

0-100km

Card 3

Front

Describe the constructive plate boundary

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What case study occurred on the constructive plate boundary?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Describe the destructive plate boundary

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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