Geography Unit 1 Case Studies

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What caused the Mount St Helens eruption?
A magnitude 5 earthquake.
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What were the warning signs that there was going to be an eruption?
There had been minor earthquakes, small ash eruptions and steam, the bulge had been growing.
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Name 5 impacts that the Mount St Helens eruption had?
Choose 5 from: 57 people died, 7000 animals died, 30km trees flattened, 12 million salmon died in Spirit Lake, 500m crater, $100 million damage in farmers machinery and crops, 15cm ash fell = timber industry destroyed, 250 homes, 47 bridges etc
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What were the short term responses?
Offering shelter, rescuing (198 people) and medical supplies.
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What were the long term responses?
1 million tonnes of ash removed (Yakima 10 weeks), $300 million lost from timber industry, $70 compensation to farmers, new tourist facilities, $7 million on highway + 25km railway. $3 million a month lost from Columbia river shipping channel.
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Name an earthquake in a developing country and describe the impacts.
Sichuan, China (May 2008). 70,000 dead, 400,000 injured, 5 million homeless, $75 billion of damage, landslides, fires, disease and shortages.
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What was done as a result of the earthquake?
Prime Minister flew to area, 50,000 soldiers searched, helicopters, Chinese $1.5 billion in aid, UK $2 million in aid, Finland sent 8000 tents.
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Name an earthquake in a developed country and desrcibe the immediate and long terms effects.
Kobe, Japan (January 1995). 5500 died, 40,000 injured, 20,000 buildings destroyed, 120/150 quays destroyed, broken gas pipes destroyed 7500 homes, 230,000 homeless, factories such as Panasonic forced to close.
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How did people respond to this natural disaster?
Gave shelters, rescue, reconnect gas, electricity. All utilities operational by July and roads/rail by August. More earthquake proofing and port 80% ready within a year.
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What impacts will climate change have in the UK (developed)?
More drought in summer and more floods in winter. More illness e.g. sun stroke, melted roads, change in crops, plants and animals die. However, reduced heating cost, fewer deaths from cold, new crops, more tourism.
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What impacts will climate change have on a developing country?
Egypt- less rainfall and more unreliable. Desertification, fall in crop yield, water shortage, heat waves, spread of diseases. Political conflict over the River Nile.
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Past climate theories.
1) Sunspot theory: more spots = warmer Earth 2) Eruption theory: pump ash into atmosphere which blocks the Sun 3) Orbital theory: amount of energy Earth receives depending on tilt and orbit
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How do we know past climates have changed?
Dinosaurs died out, mega fauna (mammoth) died out as couldn't adapt fast enough, Viking Greenland did not adapt and sea trade from Norway froze. Little Ice Age (1300-1818) causing poor harvet, famine, death.
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For a named biome, describe the resources it produces.
Tropical rainforests - warm, hot, high humidity, high rainfall. Provide crops, meat, timber, water, rubber, fruit. Maintain biodiversity, purify water, recycle nutrients, clean air and pollinates.
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Name a location facing water shortages.
The Sahel in Africa and Chad, Niger and Sudan are affected by water shortage which causes desertification due to below average rainfall and overgrazing. The population grows, demand resources, cuts down trees/overgrazing, soil bare, land infertile.
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What are the positive and negative impacts of the Colorado River scheme, USA (large scale management)?
e.g Hoover Dam. Brings all year water supply for arid area like LA + reduced risk of floods. BUT sand gets trapped, lake holds less water, sediment transportation slows so water is cooler. Animals died, loss of land, reduction lesuire activities.
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Explain the Afridev Hand Pump in Tanzania.
It is small scale, intermediate technology and is organised by Water Aid in the Chessa Village. Local people have basic skills to look after pump so profits go to them. Local radio drama educates on hygiene and water safety management.
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For a named coast, explain the problems it faces with erosions.
Holderness coast erodes at 2m a year (2 million tonnes a year) made of chalk and glacial till which is soft. Erodes quickly due to strong prevailing wind creating LSD.
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What management strategies are being used?
Mappleton underthreat (50 propeties) so in 1991, £2 million protection scheme. Involves rock armour and two groynes which stopped erosion but increased it in the South.
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Name an extreme environment and explain how plants have adapted here.
Australia - plants have drought tolerance: shedding, waxy leaves, deep roots. Succulence:fleshy leaves, shallow roots, metabolism that slows, spikes. Drought avoidance:only live for one season, seeds can be dropped in winter dormant until summer.
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How have animals adapted in the extreme environment?
Bilby is nocturnal, burrows and has low moisture needs. Perentie burrows, hibernates and has low moisture needs. Red kangaroo hops (efficient), feeds at dusk/dawn, breeds when it rains and uses morning dew.
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How do people cope in hot arid environments?
4x4 cars, loose clothing that is light coloured, hats. Coober Pedy (mining) has underground houses, solar panels, flat roofs, verandas, wind turbines. Farmers have dams and reservoirs to store water, boreholes and windpumps.
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Describe a group of people in an extreme environment.
Aboriginals eat bush tomatoes, desert limes, wattle seeds, witchetty grubs, kangaroo. Few possessions so conserve resources. Use fire to drive out animals, craft items (digeridoos) and have a verbal culture. Also dam rivers to catch fish.
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Explain how a named arid area can be underthreat.
Ayres Rock (Uluru) has a World Heritage site and 60% visitors are from overseas, aboriginals are exploited for entertainment with false expectations. Verbal history lost and bad history ignored. 2005 there were 400,000 visitors many climb the rock.
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How is this being stopped?
New culture centre, admission fee, creates jobs and visitors do not climb the rock.
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What impact will climate change have?
Famine and conflict, desertification up to 100-200km, reduction in vegetation, less rainfall and intense storms.
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How do others cope in hot environments?
Diguettes (Burkina Faso, Sahel). Set up by Oxfam, line of stones to catch water, soak into ground - in 400 villages. Conservation farming to trap moisture (reduce erosion and drought).Multicropping where different crops in same area (x10 yield).
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What was the purpose of the Kyoto Summit 1997?
Cut greenhouse gas emissions by 5.2% by 2012. 2011, 191 countries signed. Group 1 meeting target e.g. UK. Group 2 not meeting e.g. Spain. Group 3 no targets set e.g. China. Group 4 didn't sign e.g. USA.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What were the warning signs that there was going to be an eruption?

Back

There had been minor earthquakes, small ash eruptions and steam, the bulge had been growing.

Card 3

Front

Name 5 impacts that the Mount St Helens eruption had?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What were the short term responses?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What were the long term responses?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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Comments

/Lucas/Austin/

Nice work, it's helpful!

GCSEGRACE12

Thank you!

GCSEGRACE12

I have made another one on the information too.

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